Whether Shamil swore to the Russian emperor on fidelity?the French novelist Alexandre Dumas in 1858 - 59 years was in Russia including on the Caucasian war what devoted the documentary book " to; Caucasus “. In it he reflected on destiny of mountaineers in this war and in general on what is war.
“ It is easier to kill people than to educate them: to kill them it is necessary to have only gunpowder and lead; to educate them - some social philosophy which is available not to all governments is necessary. “
Shamil`s Identity was and remains mysterious, and inconsistent - such also all his life was ambiguous. The person put all himself on an altar of fight against the Russian Empire.
He bequeathed to the people to live in the world with Russia.
Since childhood and to extreme old age for the mountaineer his name is a name - a legend, a name - the legend.
is a symbol of heroism, love of freedom of the Caucasus. These are stories of fathers and grandfathers about brave men, about the fearless women, without fluctuation rushing with daggers on imperial bayonets, without shudder going on martyrdom for a fine instant of freedom.
is pain of not healing, bleeding wound in sacred memory of the people of the Caucasus.
For what Shamil got such torments of memory?
Really the damnation a name of God of God which is broken from lips the enraged, covered with wounds Baysungur that fatal day on Gunibe, pursues the distraught, tormented soul and haunts it? Who knows?
In 1799 in a family Avarian uzdenya Denga Mokhama from the settlement of Gimra was born the son.
Dreaming to see in the future the son courageous, courageous and wise, parents gave it a name of the cousin and closest associate Saint prophet Muhammad, very widespread and prestigious in the Muslim world, - the fourth just Caliph Ali (on - it is Arab “ noble, sublime “) . But soon parents replaced the first name of the frail boy on Shamil (on - Arab “ comprehensive “) .
Over the years the boy got stronger and began to win against the peers run, bor6e, jumps, gaining physical force, dexterity and bravery in games.
Endowed with brilliant natural abilities, it began to be trained at the teachers, best in Dagestan, in grammar, logic, rhetoric, the Arab language, mathematics, geography, theology, philosophy and jurisprudence.
young mutaly (pupil) began to be distinguished Soon from peers not only the knowledge, but also fervent patriotism, thirst of a feat for freedom of the Homeland.
Under Shamil`s leadership the shattered mountain people of Dagestan and Chechnya for the first and for the last time in the history were the solid uniform state.
Shamil was at the head of Chechens more than a quarter of the century and possessed outstanding abilities of the soldier, politician and administrator, having managed to achieve the implicit authority among the Chechen nobility.
Many generations of this tribe lived only war. And therefore the first successful sorties of groups of Shamil who was remaining inaccessible to regular army, which merged from him voyenno - the religious doctrine, made him the undisputed leader and the hero.
the Truth and another that in recent years many his supporters saw senselessness of the further victims and further shedding of blood.
Anyway on August 25, 1859 Shamil and 400 of his myurid were besieged in the mountain aul of Gunib. After cruel bayonet fight in which 100 mountaineers and 21 Russian soldiers fell Shamil was given in captivity
the Leader of long-term opposition of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus was a captive. He said goodbye to relatives and prayed for that the winner granted it death the worthy soldier.
On the way to St. Petersburg captured Shamil was told that in the city of Chuguev, near Kharkiv, the Russian emperor wishes to see it. At the same time it is necessary to emphasize that Alexander II disposed that captives were by all means at the weapon as his best guests.
Meanwhile the former colleagues of Shamil did not understand generosity of the Russian emperor who, on their concepts, by all means had to execute the captivated enemy. They did not dare to condemn the imam for derogation from own doctrine of jihad. But to it nobody hurried with support.
Alexander II issued the royal decree “ about appointment to the imam of the residence in the city of Kaluga “. After this to the Kaluga governor Artsimovich the instruction to find to the imam and his family the suitable house in which with comfort 22 persons of extensive family of Shamil with servants would accommodate departed.
put the house in order according to tastes of the Caucasian guest So far, to Kaluga on October 10, 1859 there arrived in three crews and accompanied by horse groups Shamil with the son Kazi - Mahomed. They stayed at the best Kaluga hotel of Frenchman Kulon. However for a while. Soon to the repaired Sukhotin`s house brought the new owner.
in the middle of 1860 arrived to Kaluga a caravan from seven a supply. One of crews was loaded the Persian carpets. Brought Shamil`s library entirely consisting of religious books. Together with books brought also the beloved wife of Shamil Shuannat.
After Shuannat told that when Shamil was carried to the Russian commander-in-chief prince Baryatinsky, she was sure that she will not see the wisest husband any more. And even when the prince Baryatinsky treated kindly them and presented them many jewels, she continued to think that it will be sent to Siberia for the rest of life. “ Never, - she admitted, - we could not think that in Russia to us it will be so good “ .
Shamil answered a question why it was not given earlier, as people of honor: “ I was connected by the oath to the people. What would be told about me? Now I made the business. Washing conscience it is pure, all Caucasus, the Russian and all European people will do me justice that I gave up only when in mountains the people ate a grass “.
Shamil took the oath on allegiance on August 26, 1866 together with the sons of Kazi - Mahomed and Shafi - Mahomed in the hall of the Kaluga Nobility assemly.
What was this so strange address of the imam Shamil from the consecutive enemy of Russia in its loyal? Whether there was this turn sincere or it was only pretense? Nobody, perhaps, except Shamil, will answer this question. the person courageous and elderly already was
It, not out of cowardice it accepted friendship with yesterday`s enemies. What threatened it? It is thought that it was manifestation of the true wisdom admiring generosity and greatness of the former enemies who won it.
Being already elderly person and constantly complaining of health, Shamil asked the tsar about permission to leave Russia to places, sacred for each devout Muslim. The emperor answered that his request will be by all means granted, but over time. It was explained only by what in the Caucasus was not still finished and it was not safe to release Shamil.
In 1869 the royal exit visa was got.
Having safely reached the sacred city of Medina from Kiev, Shamil absolutely got sick and got sick in diseases. His soul was prepared to parting with a frail world, also the pokoyna after a perfect hajj, worship of Muhammad`s coffin and hot prayers in mosques of Mecca is light.
Shamil died in January, 1871. Shamil in Medina near the mosque and few steps away from Fatma`s grave, Muhammad`s daughter is interred.]