L. I. Brezhnev - triumph of the personality or the tragedy of the country?In nearly seven decades of existence of the USSR, on confluence of historical circumstances, were seven leaders operating the country too. One of them - Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev - ordered the state nearly two decades.
Brezhnev`s Figure in national political history holds a specific place. And it is not casual; rule secretary general decorated with an order fall on special time in the history of the country and society. The Soviet Union still was one of the strongest military powers. The Soviet astronautics still set up world records, sending annually to space tens of astronauts. The Soviet industry still most in the world melted steel, got oil, developed the electric power. But it was already obvious: the country exhausted a potential which the directive economy had. Growth rates in many areas of the industry became zero. More and more agriculture decayed. The politburo was regularly engaged in allocation all of new tens and hundreds of tons of gold on purchase of the food in the West for the huge country. In the USSR an increasing number of consumer goods became scarce that urged on corruption and economic crime. Huge country started slipping
A was at the head of it the old, sick person, with five stars of the Hero of the Soviet Union, for a long time not capable to read independently without piece of paper...
Having appeared in the leader of the party and the states, Brezhnev constantly felt an inferiority complex. At heart he nevertheless understood in the first years of the power that it lacks many qualities and knowledge for the management of such state as the Soviet Union. His assistants assured him of the return, began to flatter him. Gradually the flattery became necessary to it as a constant dose of drug.
followed From political temperament of Brezhnev also his style of work as the leader of the party and the state. Brezhnev quite honestly treated the duties, but not really liked to overload himself with work. Of course, from time to time it had to work very tensely, but as soon as it became the first figure in the Politburo, his worker did not increase, and decreased. He never tried to hold in the hand all threads of management even the most important issues and the more so did not undertake to solve such affairs which could had to decide workers of more low rank. Brezhnev`s shortcoming consisted in that, it at the same time not too carefully controlled the assistants and subordinates. Not only his colleagues from the Politburo, but also ordinary workers of the device were not afraid of usually quiet and even indecisive Brezhnev. From - for insufficient activity and Brezhnev`s efficiency also the staff of his personal assistants, secretaries, reviewers which gradually turned into the big and influential device which received the official name of the Secretariat at the Secretary general of the Central Committee of CPSU was constantly increased. Brezhnev too got used to rely on the assistants and subordinates and therefore became dependent on the own environment consisting of the people not identical on the business and moral qualities. As a result Brezhnev gradually began to live in the world both created by him, and the illusions imposed to it. Practically he did not communicate with simple people, did not know their complaints and moods.
Brezhnev was in general a person kind, but did not love complications and the conflicts neither in policy, nor in the personal relations with the colleagues. When such conflict nevertheless arose, Brezhnev tried to avoid extreme decisions. This benevolence turned quite often into connivance which also dishonest people used. Brezhnev often left on the posts not only the guilty, but also caught stealing workers.
without being a strong personality, Brezhnev possessed a peculiar instinct of the power. Though he also did not show in the past clearly the expressed aspiration to domination, he gradually got into the role of the actual leader of the party and the state, and this role was pleasant to it more and more. At sociable Brezhnev there is a lot of friends and acquaintances. This group was called often Dnipropetrovsk team though entered it many people never working in Dnipropetrovsk where political career of the secretary general began. It would be more correct to call it " team; Brezhnev. At his Brezhnev " team; expanded to too big sizes. Besides in it there were too many weak heads who could keep only thanks to Brezhnev`s support. However it did not manage to advance many people from this " teams; on the leading posts in army, in bodies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Still in 50 - summer and even in 60 - summer age Brezhnev lived, not too caring for a condition of the health. He did not refuse all pleasures which life can give and which not always promotes longevity.
the First serious problems with health at Brezhnev appeared, probably, in 1969 - 1970. Near it doctors and in places where he lived began to be on duty constantly, medical offices were equipped. At the beginning of 1976 to Brezhnev there was what it is accepted to call clinical death. However it was returned to life though within two months it had no opportunity to work as his thinking and the speech were broken. Since then near Brezhnev there was always a group of doctors - the reanimators armed with the necessary equipment. Gradual it became more difficult for it to carry out even the simplest legal duties, and he ceased to understand what occurs around. Even in the afternoon on November 7, 1982 during parade and demonstration Brezhnev stood several hours, despite cold weather, on the Mausoleum tribune, and foreign newspapers wrote that it looked even it is better usual. The end came, however, in only three days. In the morning during a breakfast Brezhnev left in the office to take something and long did not come back. The concerned wife followed for it and saw it lying on a carpet near a desk. Efforts of doctors did not bring success this time, and in four hours after Brezhnev`s heart stopped, they declared his death. Next day the Central Committee of CPSU and the Soviet government officially declared to the world L. I. Brezhnev`s death.
After his death, the period boards Brezhnev was called stagnant but in it is a high time most " too; quiet and happy . But actually the huge country by the time of his death stopped in the movement: stagnation captured all areas of life. It is command - the management system was not able in cardinally changed conditions to provide due development of productive forces, to protect human rights, to support the international authority of the country. Besides, one and all layers of the Soviet society felt discomfort.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was the near head and the politician therefore it also got on Olympe of the power as was at that time a convenient person for many. Officially he received the power and all following from this consequence, but actually others directed the country, and used him as an obedient puppet.
The list of the used literature:
Big Soviet Encyclopedia of
Smena Magazine, 1989, number 7 and 8.]