Where there is a city of Edf ofof Edfu (sovr. Idfu), the ancient city in the Top Egypt, halfway between Luxor and Aswan, the center of a cult of Gore (Chorus). Edfu - the modern name of the district of the mother country of the second verkhneegipetsky Nome Tessa - Gore (“ Gore`s Throne “) on - Egyptian Debut, on - Coptic Atbo. The Greeks comparing local Gore with Apollo called Edfu Veliky Apollinopol.
The remains of residential quarters, a necropolis and the majestic temple of Gore, the most impressive by the sizes after Karnak remained. The construction of this temple on the place of more ancient began at Ptolemaeus of III in 237 BC, and came to the end in 180 years in 57 BC at Ptolemaeus the XIII Dionysus and Cleopatra Tryphena. From earlier time escaped only naos in a sanctuary (on it cartouches of Nektaneba of I). Gore`s temple is considered the most well remained in comparison with other temples.
However when it was found in 1860, it appeared before August`s eyes Marietta, one of directors of Louvre and the collector of a collection of the Egyptian museum in Cairo, in a deplorable state. The great job on its clearing and restoration which was on the place of a find the village was done postponed for other place.
Reliefs and inscriptions on walls of the temple devoted to Gore tell about a victory of Gore who revenged for death of the father to god Seth and his allies represented in an image of crocodiles and hippopotamuses. Except Gore, in Edfu it was esteemed him “ cycle “: his spouse Hator (Hatkhor) who was annually brought by a procession across Neil from Dender, their son Akhi, and also Osiris and Isida, goddesses Shiu and Tefnut.
The temple in Edfu has classical Ancient Egyptian architecture. It begins a massive entrance pole, the second for the size in all Egypt. In the open yard surrounded with columns there is huge Gore`s sculpture - a falcon from black granite. The first hypostylish hall decorated with scenes of sacrifices has 18 columns. In the second hypostylish hall, the smaller size, but more graceful, 12 columns. Through it the way lies in a sanctuary where in those far times were allowed only devoted - great priests and the Pharaoh. In a sanctuary remained naos, cut from the integral rock (the XXX dynasty).
Inscriptions on walls of the temple of Gore - the whole well of various knowledge. On them it is possible to find lists of books on mythology, astronomy, geography, and construction. They explain symbolical value of proportions and the sizes of architectural details of temples, referring to mythological plots and the well-known book of the builder of pyramids Imkhotep. There are also recipes of preparation of divine oils and huts which were used at commission of ceremonies.
The temple was taken in Edfu as a sample at registration of the Egyptian hall of Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow. In the spring 1909 future director of the museum I. V. Tsvetaev went to Egypt to get acquainted with its ancient architecture. According to him, it found a hall form in Edfu, “ as well as possible suitable to our " sizes;.]