Whether were among monkey astronauts?Sergey Pavlovich Korolev from among those people who can be characterized in a word - the Genius. It one of the few Russian scientists who were among twenty most great scientists of the twentieth century, according to the world public. The talented organizer, the engineer, the public figure, but at the same time and just the Person, as well as any other - with the principles, beliefs and... Sergey Korolev was born weaknesses
on January 12, 1907 in Zhytomyr in a family of teachers. Lost the father in three years, from ten-year age it was brought up by the stepfather, the mechanical engineer in the specialty.
In the shortest possible time of the first post-war years headed creation of the space industry of the USSR. In 1957 start of the first artificial satellite of Earth is carried out in the fall. An epoch-making event for a human civilization. And in three years start of the person was ready.
the rocket with the person had to go To space at the end of 1960. But start was interfered by a tragic case: On October 24, 1960 on Baikonur Cosmodrome directly on start the fuelled military rocket exploded. Three hundred people including the marshal Nedelin died. The majority of them burned down alive. Investigation of this tragedy by State commission also pushed start of the person in space the background.
The USA was also going to start the person in space. The carried-out test flights gave a reason for optimistic forecasts. Not dogs, as in the USSR, and monkeys were the main participants of starts in the desert Nevada. They were known on names, as well as our Strelka and Belka.
By this moment of a monkey flew on rockets ten years.
the First macaque a Rhesus factor - as a result died - went to an upper atmosphere still on June 11, 1948 on the German ballistic missile of Fau - 2.
Should noting that many monkeys died for space exploration, without having come off Earth. For example, to understand what overloads the astronaut is capable to endure during the braking, chimpanzee seated on “ sled “ with the jet engine which dispersed on rails to huge speed, and stopped then in one second - so from experimental animals remained continuous medley.
As for flights in space, the first “ a monkey - the astronaut “ endured the flight which took place on Friday, December 13, 1958, but met the death at the bottom of Atlantic: the ship of Naval Forces could not find the catapulted compartment with an animal.
As the telemetry showed, a squirrel monkey by name It is proud sustained both 9 minutes of zero gravity, and huge overloads at take off and landing, having proved that the human body is capable to cope with similar tests too.
Half a year later later flight Is proud monkeys it was succeeded to return from space live. Onboard the " rocket; Jupiter “ started from Cape Canaveral on May 29, 1959 on height of 500 kilometers, there were two astronauts at once - a squirrel monkey Baker and a macaque a Rhesus factor Eybl. By the way, Eybl replaced the initial candidate, a macaque a Rhesus factor from India, shortly before start. NASA considered that politically incorrect to experiment on a sacred animal, and the indigenous American went to space.
sent on January 31, 1961 a Cameroonian chimpanzee of Ham to the flight on height of 250 kilometers continuing about 16 minutes. This chimpanzee endured both flight, and landing when its capsule nearly sank in the ocean.
Became obvious that Alan Shepard preparing together with monkeys can be allowed to flight. Americans planned
and widely advertized date on May 2, 1961 - time of the planned start of the ship “ Mercury “ with the person.
Sergey Korolev could not assume that the first the American went to space.
the Chief designer understood that the reached reliability has not enough for start of the person in space, but at the same time he spoke: “ Only the life insurance in case of death " gives Hundred percent of a guarantee;. Two last safe trial starts instilled in it confidence, and Korolev risked: appointed the seventh start-up “ East “ already with the person onboard, for several weeks earlier, than Americans could.
There were offers to replace Gagarin, the father of two little daughters, with childless German Titov. None of medical board subscribed under the conclusion that the astronaut will return live! But Korolev insisted on Gagarin`s candidacy, itself held at him exam in the forthcoming flight and the remained life was proud that did not make the wrong choice.
One minute prior to start the first astronaut sang “ You Fly, pigeons, you fly “. Further record fixes the speeded-up breath of the astronaut. Several seconds later, Korolev told: “ Full rise “ and Gagarin said well-known “ Let`s roll! “
Gagarin`s flight lasted 108 minutes.
On April 12, 1961 at ten o`clock 55 minutes Moscow time the astronaut successfully made a landing.
The name Queen was declassified only in day of his death. For all during lifetime he remained the anonymous Chief designer. He could get the Nobel Prize twice - for start of the first artificial satellite of Earth and for flight of the first astronaut. But when the Nobel committee suggested to call a surname of the Chief designer, Nikita Khrushchev answered: “ It is impossible to call One person, the creator of new equipment at us shows all people “.
The Chief designer Sergey Pavlovich Korolev on January 14, 1966, - for the second day after the 59 - the anniversaries finished the terrestrial work.
Space department of the USA, having lost race for superiority of flight of the person,
some time continued to train in flights of the regular monkeys.
Then the program of preparation was reconstructed on astronauts and aimed at the Moon.]