In what secret of rubies of the award “ VICTORY “? There are noawards which would be given for defeats.
All awards anyway - victory awards, signs of winners. to Take
at least an award of the Golden Fleece. Its medal sign consists of gold
of a sheep skin over which gold flint with tongues of flame is placed, across the field with blue enamel the motto " is written out; Pretium laborum non vile “ - “ The Award does not concede to a feat “. In especially tozhestvenny cases this award is carried on the gold chain consisting of links in a look kresat also flints.
Actually the first awards of the Russian monarchs, even before establishment on the European samples, are always victory awards. Ivan the Terrible handed to the commanders and soldiers who overcame a kingdom Kazan specially minted gold sign - an award of a victory over the terrible immemorial enemy. The construction in Moscow of the Temple of the Cover on the Ditch near the Kremlin better known under a name of St. Basil`s Cathedral became deification of rewardings for this victory. Specially created award to Vasily Golitsyn after the first Crimean campaign - an award of a victory over the Crimean khanate. What to tell about numerous awards of victories at female reigns of the 18th century! Big fights leave behind big destructions and in memory to winners - big awards.
Award ``Victory “ - unique award.
Idea of creation of the award “ Victory “ was born long before the victory, in the middle of fights of World War II, summer of 1943.
Over the project of an award notable Soviet painters - medalists were employed.
Was invited also the artist A. I. Kuznetsov, the author of drawing of an award of Patriotic war. He received a task to create a special award to mark out the Soviet commanders for carrying out successful combat large-scale operations.
External design of a new award had to is strong to differ from earlier founded awards as in its production it was supposed to use jewels.
In October, 1943 the general A. V. Hrulev, the chief of the back of Red Army, considered design drawings of A. I. Kuznetsov twice, and according to his remarks the artist did new sketches with inscriptions in the bottom of a circle - “ Award “ Victory “ “ and “ Victory “. One of drawings the general approved
and on it the sample of an award which was shown on October 25 to Stalin was urgently made.
the Supreme Commander considered it and offered in the center of a medallion (instead of Lenin`s images of Stalin) to place either the coat of arms of the USSR, or Spasskaya Tower with a fragment of the Kremlin wall.
On completion of the sketch gave to the artist three days, and secondary discussion of the project of an award took place already on October 29. Stalin chose option with the inscription " from seven submitted sketches; Victory “ but also advised to make changes to it: to integrate Spasskaya Tower and the Kremlin walls in sizes, to impose them on a blue background, and to reduce shtrala between beams of a five-pointed star.
transferred the sketch Finished by A. I. Kuznetsov to the management yuvelirno - hour factory with an order in the shortest possible time to make an award specimen of platinum, diamonds and rubies. And on November 5, 1943 final sketches and the presented award " sample; Victory “ were approved together with its statute. The award sample which is poured diamonds so was pleasant to Stalin that he retained it, and in three days the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR founded the award “ Victory “ its statute and description of signs.
Establishment of an award coincided with celebration of the scheduled anniversary of October revolution - on November 8, 1943.
In the medal statute it is told: “ Award “ Victory “ as highest military
an award, awards persons of the highest command structure of Red Army
for successful carrying out such combat operations, on the scale of several
or one front as a result of which in a root the situation in
advantage of Red Army " changes;.
Award “ Victory “ represented the big convex five-pointed star from rubies ornated by diamonds. Gross weight of precious diamonds in an award had to make 16 carats.
Order for production of thirty awards “ Victory “ arrived on the Moscow jeweler factory. The most active part in this responsible work was taken by the master of the highest qualification I. F. Kazennov.
By calculations of experts on production of each award was required 180 diamonds, 50 rosettes and 300 grams of platinum.
According to the order of Council of People`s Commissars of Glavyuvelirtorgu was released 5400 diamonds, 1500 rosettes and 9 kilograms of pure platinum; delivery of values - gram in gram, carat in carat - was controlled by especially authorized representatives of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs.
Award " basis; Victory “ which size from the end by the end of opposite beams equaled to seventy two millimeters, was produced from platinum.
In the central round medallion the gold leaves (oak and laurel) framing walls and towers of the Kremlin, and under them - the Lenin Mausoleum. In the lower part of a circle on a red enamel tape the inscription " settled down; Victory “ in the top part of a medallion the inscription " was made letters; USSR “. On the back awards the device for its fastening on clothes was made.
Remarkable history happened to medal rubies.
Stalin set a condition: the award has to be made of domestic natural materials (only diamonds undertook from imperial treasury).
I. F. Kazennov collected rubies nearly from all Moscow, but even two identical among them was not: all stones differed on color. What was to do? And then the master decided to use artificial rubies from which it was possible to cut the necessary number of preparations of identical coloring. This secret I. F. Kazennov stored all the life and only shortly before death opened it for the pupil - the jeweler V. A. Belyaev.
First rewarding with the award “ Victory “ took place in 1944 - in five months after its establishment. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR noted merits of two fighting commanders - marshals of the Soviet Union Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov and Alexander Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky.
For years of the Great Patriotic War 19 rewardings with the award " were made; Victory “. Twice it awarded the generalissimo I. V. Stalin, marshals G. K. Zhukov and A. M. Vasilevsky. On one award - marshals I. S. Konev, K. K. Rokossovsky, F. I. Tolbukhin, L. A. Govorov and S. K. Tymoshenko, and also the general A. I. Antonov received for the skillful management of troops-. Marshall K. A. Meretskov was awarded the order “ Victory “ for difference in war with Japan.
were noted by the Highest Soviet military award also five foreign military leaders - for a contribution to a general victory over fascism.
It were the marshal Iosif Broz Tito - the Supreme Commander Narodno - a liberation army of Yugoslavia, M. Rol`s marshal - Zhimerinsky - the Supreme Commander of Army Polish, the French general B. Montgomery - the top military commander of group of armies in Western Europe, Mihai I - the former king of Romania (at the final stage of war the Romanian troops took part in military operations on the party of allies).
The award " sparkling diamonds; Victory “ in June, 1945 in the German city of Frankfurt am Main G. K. Zhukov handed to the general of the American army D. Eisenhower - to the Supreme Commander by allied forwarding forces in Western Europe.
“ I am struck with such big award of the Soviet government, - D. Eisenhower told, - and it is flattered with the fact that I receive such award from hands of the marshal Zhukov “.
After World War II D. Eisenhower became a politician and he was designated in presidents, but... “ to the candidate on elections of 1952 not to the person was to have an award of the communistic state “. And award “ Victory “ it was handed over in D. Eisenhower`s museum in Abilene.
is In this regard very curious the certificate of one of aide-de-camps of the American general: “ Award “ Victory “ it was estimated at 100000 dollars. Eisenhower carefully counted diamonds, considered their sizes... But how to be with rubies? Then addressed experts, but also they could not call their exact cost because they could not understand original or synthetic rubies are strengthened on an award. It was succeeded to pass a final decision to nobody as nobody in the USA saw the real rubies of such " sizes;. Thus, the Soviet jewelers created in fact an invaluable work of art - the award “ Victory “ last world war.
This award became the Soviet award, the second for a rarity, after the award “ For service to the Homeland in Armed Forces “ I degrees. (For comparison - Heroes of the Soviet Union was in one thousand times more, and it is almost twice more gentlemen of the Order of Saint George 1 class before revolution.) Award “ Victory “ also one of the most rare awards in the world. Nowadays from the former Soviet military leaders any gentleman of the award " did not survive; Victory “: the last in 1977 the marshal A. M. Vasilevsky departed. The being king of Romania Mihai I managed to endure it abroad.
Copy of the award “ Victory “ it is possible to see on a uniform of the marshal K. K. Rokossovsky in the former museum of the Soviet Army, and its original - in the Kremlin Diamond Fund.
The highest military award of the disappeared power remains a symbol of military valor and art of a military leader in the heaviest of the wars which were ever raging on Earth.]