What engine oil will be suitable for my avtombilya?Proceeding from requirements of the engine of your car and temperature of air, engine oil are selected by two main criteria:
- level of operational properties on classification of API or ACEA which has to conform to requirements of your engine;
- viscosity on classification of SAE which is chosen depending on temperature of air and degree of wear of the engine of the car. Classification of SAE Classification of API Classification of ACEA Admissions of the automobile Classification of SAE firms
One of the main properties of engine oil are its viscosity and its dependence on temperature in the wide range (from air temperature at the time of cold start-up in the winter up to the maximum temperature of oil in the engine at the maximum load in the summer). The most complete description of compliance vyazkostno - temperature properties of oils to requirements of engines contains in the classification of SAE J300, standard at the international level.
It subdivides engine oils on 6 winter (OW, 5W, 10W. 15W, 20W and 25W) and five summer classes of viscosity (20,30, 40, 50 and 60). All-weather oils are designated by dual number, first of which points out the minimum values of dynamic viscosity of oil at negative temperatures and guarantees starting properties, and the second - determines the range of kinematic viscosity, characteristic of the corresponding class of viscosity of summer oil, at 100oC and dynamic viscosity at 150oC.
The test methods put in an assessment of properties of oils on SAE J300 give the consumer information on the extreme temperature of oil at which perhaps provorachivany the engine a starter and the oil pump pumps over oil under pressure in the course of cold start-up in the mode which is not allowing dry friction in frictional units.
we Pay attention of the consumer that for engines various designs temperaturnk ranges of operability of oil of this class on SAE significantly differ. They depend on the power of a starter, the minimum starting frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft demanded for launch of the engine from productivity of the oil pump, from the hydraulic resistance of a maslopriyemny path and many other efficiency, technology and operational factors (technical condition of the car, quality of gasoline or diesel fuel, qualification of the driver, etc.) .
Preliminary recommendations about selection of oils about viscosity
they are as follows:
- at run of the car less than 25% of a planned resource of the engine (the new engine) needs to apply SAE 5W - 30 or 10W - 3C oils To the majority of engines all-weather;
- at run of the car of 25 - 75% from planned an engine resource (technically serviceable engine it is expedient to apply in the summer of oil of the classes SAE 10W - 40, 15W - 40, in the winter - SAE 5W - 30 and 10W - 30 t all-weather - SAE 5W - 40;
- at run of the car more than 75% from planned an engine resource (the old engine) should be applied in the summer of oil of the classes SAE 15W - 40 and 20W - 50, in the winter - SAE 5W - 4C and 10W - 40 and all-weather - SAE 5W - 50.
Classification of API the First classification of oils under the terms of their application and to levels of operational properties byls is offered to
by the American institute of oil (API) in 1947.
Since then it was repeatedly supplemented, but the principle of division of oils into two categories - “ S “ and “ With “ remained. To the category “ S “ (Service) belong oils for 4 - cycle petrol engines, to the category “ With “ (Commercial) - the oils intended for diesels of the motor transport, dorozhno - construction equipment and farm vehicles. Levels of operational properties on API in ascending order of requirements to quality are subdivided in the category “ S “ on nine classes (SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF SG, SH and SJ), and in the category “ With “ - on ten classes (SA, SV CC, CD, CD - 11, SE, CF, CF - 2, CF - 4 and CG - 4). Figures at designation of classes (CD - 11, CF - 2, CF - 4 and CG - 4) give additional information on applicability of this class of oils in 2 - or 4 - cycle diesels respectively For designation of universal oils, i.e. such which can be applied to greasing of petrol engines and diesels double marking for example of SF/CC, SG/CD, " is accepted; CF - 4/SH, etc. of
Classification of ACEA
the European association of automobile producers (ASEA) entered new classification of engine oils which is based on the European test methods since 1996, and also uses some conventional American motor and physics - chemical test methods on API, SAE and ASTM.
Since March 1, 1999 all new oils have to conform to more modern requirements to requirements of ASEA - 98. However till March 1, 2000 use of requirements of ASEA - 96 is allowed. After this date all oils have to conform only to requirements of ASEA - 98
B ACEA enter the leading giants of automotive industry - BMW, DAF, Ford of Europe, General Motors Europe, MAN, Mercedes - Benz, Peugeot, Porsche, Renault, Rolls - Royce, Rover, Saab - Scania, Volkswagen, Volvo, FIAT, etc.
Classification of ASEA - 98 subdivides engine oils into 3 categories (depending on appointment) - And, B and E:
A1, A2 and A3 - three levels of quality of oils for petrol engines;
B1, B2, VZ and B4 - four levels of quality of oils for easy diesel engines of cars and vans on the basis of cars;
E1, E2, EZ and E4 - four levels of quality of oils for heavy diesel dvigateleidruzovy cars;]