From what it is more preferable to drink alcohol? People drankat all times.
Vessels were different. Their contents too constantly changed.
Glass glasses of a cone-shaped form with funneled top part decorated tables of grandees of the West and East of Europe during an era of the early Middle Ages. The high cost of these vessels made in Byzantium only emphasized their half-forgotten sacral function. Simple Europeans were content in the XIII-XVII centuries with the tin and copper cylindrical vessels which were carrying on tradition of late antique glass cups, but containing no more than 200 g of liquid. However, on a threshold of modern times from such vessels not grape wine, but more hard liquors was absorbed.
So, in Russia gains distribution " 16th century; hot wine simple, double and threefold “ that is, simply speaking, vodka. That natural measure which the adult man having standard health is capable to absorb at one go does not exceed 200 grams or milliliters of such drink. The mentioned vessels which were called as the Russian citizens of the XVI-XVII centuries cups also differed in such volume.
However, the new term - " at that time begins to extend; dostakan “ (perhaps, from the Turkic concept “ dastarkhan “ that is “ holiday table “) . The vessels which were called so were produced in Byzantium from silver, and originally were accessory of use of the imperial yard. By Petrovsky time such vessels began to make of glass or clay (by glassing it found almost “ glass “ gloss) and under a name of glasses strongly became current broad masses of citizens.
As well as their antique predecessors, the Russian glass blowers tried to hide defects of the production therefore glasses of the 18th century, repeating tradition of the Roman glasses, were also supplied with cutting. In process of increase of fortress of the invigorating drinks volumes of the corresponding vessels decreased. In the age of Enlightenment the lafitny glasses (lafitnik), feet containing from 50 to 100 g were widely adopted (piles, in popular speech - stoparik). Are directly connected by the name of the last with one of traditional Russian measures of calculation of volume. Made of thick green or blue glass, and also of silver or tin, such “ microglasses “ quite often were also supplied with legs, imitating graceful vessels for grape wines.
Glasses or mugs, considerable on volume, continued to be used for soft drinks, once popular in the Russian people, - kvass, sbitnya, cowberry water and (imagine!) “ sour shty “.
In the 19th century the place of the main material for production of glasses surely won glass. Any official or family celebration was followed by its ringing (an indicator of quality of glass). In all sectors of society the custom of a chokaniye was approved by the drinkable vessels. In the western countries it onomatopoeically is called as the term. The ring of feasts is heard in the Swedish appeal (“ Let`s drink! “) and in an old Scandinavian saying: “ Mines show, dynes show, to Alya Vekken frikken show! “ (“ I drink, you drink, also all nice girls drink! “)
One of events of national history - the hodynsky tragedy - is directly connected on May 18, 1896 with a vodka glass. The tin vessel (0,5 l) in which to participants of coronation celebrations accompanied by plentiful snack state vodka moved possessed such form. The excessive aspiration to these extravagances served as a cause of death in the created killing crush of 1389 people (data official). So there was a difficult reputation of a glass.
However, by the end of the 19th century it begins to be used widely as a container for the food products which are not connected with alcoholic beverages in any way. The cylindrical vessels up to 0,5 l produced from faience at small wholesale trade become receptacles for curdled milk or sour cream. In glass glasses (0,25 l) shopkeepers packaged honey. All this “ not alcoholic “ the container slightly below than edge of a glass was supplied with deepening or a side by means of which on its walls the becheva which was pulling together a paper or cover of a vessel made of cloth fastened. A look thick glass tumblers on counters of the Moscow shops at the beginning of 50 - x contained years qualitative medical
A in it here classical “ granchak “ classical volume - for production industrial in large quantities - created the outstanding monumentalist of Mukhin, the author and other grandiose symbol of an era - a steel monument “ Worker and collective farmer “.
It is indicative that in ware - household shops such glasses, being especially professional container, met extremely seldom. Later, during a Khruschev`s era, former “ honey “ with glasses with a side numerous carts and boxes with sparkling water began to be supplied. In automatic machines gas - waters were always used strong thick glass tumblers. However, with development of national addiction to very hard liquors glasses disappeared from the centers of nonalcoholic drink at first, and then also these centers were gone.
In the contemporary history of our country mutno - the glass thick glass tumbler became the integral attribute of man`s meetings, places, occurring in most unexpected, quite often far from romanticism. The far descendant of production of antique masters became the hero of national folklore from children`s counting rhymes (“ a glass - a lemon, go out! “) to numerous jokes. However, recently from daily use of members “ " risk groups; the glass container began to be forced out by import disposable capacities successfully. However successor of tradition late medieval Moscow “ dastarkhan “ deservedly took the place in our traditional life.
Clinking glasses with a glass or a shot glass at a table, we will remember that thereby we recreate century tradition of feasts of our ancestors ringing “ import “ the Roman glasses, always connected with the solemn cult ceremonies which were taking place grandly and adequately.
In words of an old tavern song that nearly mystical role which in life of our ancestors was played by the ware shining on a table with the glass sides is immortalized. Really, words, - “ Glasses cut fell from a table... fell and broke, my life " broke; - are very significant.]