For what purpose tie up tibial bones of animals to legs?This text of the Canterbury monk Stefanius who wrote Chronicle of the notable city of London it is considered the first reliable mention of skates in literature.
In Russia was that year last year of reigning of the Grand duke Andrey Bogolyubsky.
To present the young man with the tibial bones of animals attached to stupnyam on ice of the bog rushing with speed of the flying bird - a task, frankly speaking, not from simple.
But what in such a way worked well which - how to move on the frozen rivers and lakes - it is quite possible to allow.
Generally skates - one of the most ancient inventions of mankind.
Cut out, or turned from bones of animals and attached to legs, skates since ancient times allowed rather easily and quickly (in comparison with a cow on ice) to move on the frozen surface of the water.
So, is known that in Siberia rode morzhovy canines, in China - bamboo trunks. And the skates found archeologists in Kazakhstan at the Pine-forest lake were made of a golenny bone of a horse.
is stored In the London museum the similar fad - the long perfected bone with a cut for a lace. This ancient fad was found in Murfilda in 1839.
On the bank of the Southern Bug and dry estuary near Odessa archeologists in the late sixties of the XX century found strange bones. After long and careful studying it became clear that it is not just ground off bones, these are skates. And the most ancient skates from all ever found. Allegedly skates belonged to Cimmerians - the nomadic tribe living in Northern Black Sea Coast more than three thousand years ago. Logically - a pier, time of a bone are found on the parking of Cimmerians, so, - Cimmerians also ran on skates already in the period of a bronze age.
of Still more ancient signs of interest of the person in sliding on ice is not recorded.
these bone skates surpass stock of ancient Dutches and Danes In age. In Scandinavia skates appeared most likely only during an era of Vikings.
Handymen of antiquity managed to adapt for movement on ice not only a bone of animals. It is confirmed by the ancient wooden skates found at excavation on coast of the Ladoga and Chudsky lakes.
Were improved both skates, and a way of movement on them.
of the Bone of animals were in whole or in part replaced with wooden whetstones. In the beginning their surface was polished, then began to be attached to it and metal strips
In the 13th century in Holland and Iceland appeared skates with the iron runner bent in front inserted into a wooden block. They were tied to footwear belts.
And the Russian handymen cut out the bent fad sock in the form of the horse head, from here and the name Russian skates.
The steel skates which tightly are screwed on footwear for the first time made at the Tula small-arms factory under Peter I`s decree.
In English this adaptation from antiquity is called skates.
Since 14th century and until the end of XVII, skates were made mainly of a tree with metal runners and were attached to a footwear sole by ropes and belts.
And at the very beginning of the XVIII century in the Netherlands and England the first steel skates appeared.
began to make metal skates Everywhere at the end of XVIII and the beginning of the 19th centuries.
Already at the beginning of 80 - x years of the 19th century the Norwegian skaters K. Varnep and A. Paulsen designed special running skates.
And in 1908 in Russia the first champion in figure skating Nikolay Panin appeared. It also became the only thing in pre-revolutionary Russia the owner of a gold medal of the Olympic Games and the five-time champion of the country in this sport. Since then Russia strongly holds a world championship on figure skating, and the Russian school by right is considered the strongest in the world.
I skating club opened - it is known precisely - in 1604 in the Scottish city of Edinburgh.
B 1763 athletes of foggy Albion held the first international friendly match with the American fast walkers.
The very first edition of rules about skates appeared in England in 1772 too. It appears, and more than two hundred back already existed certain principles of driving.
this Book was innovative. On one of pages of this English book it is mentioned that for the first time to boots the Russian emperor Peter I who, building the ships in the Dutch forest port of Zaandam (which is nowadays called by Zandam), was fond in " ordered to priklepat skates; off-duty time speed skating. Working in Holland, the Russian tsar saw general interest of the people in skating and could not remain indifferent. Itself started skating, and carried away the court.
Here specification is necessary: skates were known to the Russian people long ago, long before foreign voyages of the tsar - the reformer. In particular Muscovites always very much loved this daring and very useful entertainment.
For example, the English diplomat Karleyl who more than three hundred years ago visited Moscow wrote: Favourite winter entertainment moskovityan - skating .
Historians of sport note that the skating as an element of physical culture and a type of competition seen by Peter I and his associates in Holland and then brought to Russia, became usual for the people, became one of favourite entertainments.
But With Peter the Great`s death, - with grief the observer of the Russian magazine " noticed; " oat-flakes; in 1914, - speed skating " disappeared in Russia;.
Skates during an era female reigns lost popularity, nearly hundred years about them in Russia not was, as they say, nothing has been heard
I only in the twenties the 19th century ingenious Pushkin sang them short, but still unsurpassed anthem in Falls :
As is cheerful, having put on iron sharp on legs,
to Slide on a mirror of the standing flat rivers
In the twentieth and thirtieth years of the 19th century skates revive in Russia and even become fashionable.
I skating rink on the land it was filled in in 1842 in England by the resident of London Henry Kirk; till that time athletes used ice of natural reservoirs
Skates for children who learn to seize sliding art, appeared in 1900 and had two runners
the earliest mention of the word skate - fad it is possible to find in English - the Netherlands " dictionary; GEMAHA (1648).
The first officially recorded competitions were held in Great Britain in January, 1763. Competitions were won by Mr. Lamb who ran a distance of 15 miles in 46 minutes.
The second half of the XIX century is characterized by rapid development of speed skating around the world. In America, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Russia and other countries skates of new designs begin to appear.
So, in Philadelphia (USA) about 1850 all-metal skates were made of steel. They were attached to a leg by means of belts. Then in ten years guessed an oval plate on calcaneal part of the fad to replace with additional fixing brackets. And all - to 90 - x years of the XIX century wooden skates with a metal runner of the Dutch and English production continued to enjoy wide popularity.
The invention of the fad of Halifax which surpassed all other types of skates used earlier in simplicity of a design was the following noticeable improvement. This fad won great popularity among skaters in many countries of the world.
Konstantin Paustovsky in the works wrote more than once about how in Kiev at the beginning of the XX century on a city skating rink skillful athletes showed the class, using a subject of envy of all boys - skates of firm Halifax.
Skating became favourite winter entertainment. In this regard skating clubs everywhere began to open. In Russia the first such club was open in St. Petersburg in 1864 world-wide - the famous skater, the first informal world champion, the Russian fast walker and the figure skater A. Panshin. Along with a wide circulation of driving and skating there was also their improvement.
Till 1883 figure skaters and skaters rode all-metal short, heavy skates with a curved edge. Such skates made by the Tula handymen were found at construction of Moscow Metro.
The Norwegian fast walkers A. Paulsen and K. Verner in 1880 designed tubular running skates. Forward and back metal platforms were screwed on a boot sole by respectively six and four screws
. It was revolution in speed skating. The big contribution to development of a form of skates was made by the Russian fast walker, the employee of the Nikolaev railroad Alexander Panshin. In 1887 he made on own model the extended skates - all-metal, long, with a narrow edge and a little bent sock skates - a prototype today`s running. For many decades the model of tubular running skates did not undergo basic changes.
In 1892 the Norwegian of X. Gagen offered one more innovation - the running fad consisting of a steel tube and the steel runner inserted into it. These skates gave the chance to take an enormous step forward in development of high-speed run; on such skates all fast walkers of the world run so far.
Emergence of new model of the skates made by the Dutch firms " became sensation; Viking and " Colza;. In 1996 - 1997 certain Dutch skaters began a competitive season on skates of new model. Belgian Bart Veldkamp - the winner of the World Cup of 1997 in run on 10000 m told: Slepskeyt - future of speed skating .]