Who are you, Father Frost? (Part 1) ofHi, Father Frost, a beard …
So from where our symbol of New Year, winter, snow and changes came?
Father Frost`s Image is reflected in all Slavic traditions. At east Slavs it is a fantastic image of Moroz - the athlete, the smith who “ holds down " water; iron frosts... The traditions which are the cornerstone of these images remained at east Slavs in ritual of feeding of Moroz on the eve of Christian Christmas and in “ Day " Is big; kissel that contacts custom of feeding by this ritual dish of grandfathers - dead men.
Father Frost as the character of the Russian national fairy tales and ceremonies, is connected with that period when “ the sun turns for the summer, winter on a frost “ that is with a winter solstice.
He is a Lord of winter cold and in this quality it, first of all the Master Vod which in winter cold weather appear at people in all the forms: snow, ice, hoarfrost, steam, fog and the water of the rivers, lakes and seas flowing under ice.
Father Frost bears with himself not only cold, snow and ice, but also night, darkness as light day in northern latitudes is extremely short in the winter, and night is big (not to mention three-months polar night). As the Lord Nochi Father Frost rules over stars and the Moon, the winter sky is subordinated to him, it decorates it with spolokha of the Polar Lights.
its wealth - silver, diamonds, pearls. All this is connected in traditional representations with purity, cold, a moonlight, tears and magic. Not incidentally, as the academician B. A. Rybakov notes, on silver Slavic jewelry, up to the XII-XIII centuries there is never a Christian symbolics. Perhaps, it is connected with the fact that long since silver was associated with the Moon.
Connected with silver, a moonlight, the moon and at night, Father Frost is directly connected also with “ next world “ - world of ancestors. The words " are not without reason so close; death, pestilence, sea “ and frost “. To die - it is equivalent to the concept “ to cool down “ “ to die “ that is to freeze. Here It should be noted that at all Indo-European people of Europe celebration of New year is noted by carrying out carnivals with masked.
Even today old men and old women in the North Russian remote place on a question who such Father Frost, answer: “ These are our ancestors, parents “. Oat kissel - the specific ritual dish connected with funeral ceremonialism.
Thus, we found out that the Russian Father Frost it: The lord Vod in all of them manifestations (snow, hoarfrost, ice, steam, water). The lord Nochi and its attributes - the star sky, the moon, a polar light, a gloom. Lord Serebra (symbol of the moon, moonlight, magic, sacral knowledge); Lord of the world of ancestors and Ded, that is prapredok.
Being interested in image of Father Frost, we have to address to such interesting and in general to the forgotten character of Slavic mythology as to the Trojan. He, probably, received the name from three phases passed by the moon. Ideas of winter, snow, the snowdrifts, a snow whiteness and tracks trodden by wild rounds contacted the Trojan in national tradition.
But the Trojan was not only god of winter, snow, roads. Being god of the moon, it did not belong entirely to a circle of light, kind gods of ancient Slavs. Connected with a cult of ancestors and fertility, the Trojan was also a deity of a night gloom, powers of darkness and horrors. And still he was the great judge, that who awards and punishes both live, and dead. Not incidentally in national tradition a way on “ next world “ - The Milky Way - call “ Troyanova`s track “.
In the north of Russia during the pre-Christian period the deity bearing a name of Velez (Hair) was analog of the Trojan.
“ Velez “ - master, manager, mentor; “ to volosit “ - to dominate. Velez (Hair) is the lord of waters. Sacrificed to Velez in special cases “ little bodies and heifer “ also called it “ terrible god “.
Process of replacement of pagan gods by Christian Saints is very typical and characterizes not only the Slavic countries, however it is especially important for research of Slavic paganism “.
Researches B. A. Uspensky convincingly prove - in the Russian North in the course of a hristianization Saint Nikolay or Nikola (Mikola) replaced with themselves ancient god Volos - Velez. At the end of the 18th century priests, " met; confessing Nicol as God “. It turns out that else in the XVI-XVII centuries Russians avoided to name at a baptism Nikolay and connected it with the fact that it was impossible to christen the child a name of Christ or the Virgin. The foreigners living in Russia in the 17th century called any Russian icon “ Nikolay “.
Is obvious that Nikola`s cult, as well as Volos`s cult - Velez, is characteristic of the Russian North. (Saint George`s cult - Egoriya was more characteristic of the South of Russia).
It is well-known that Perun was personification of a lightning in Slavic paganism. As the embodiment of the striking weapon force, Perun was god of a princely team. But the Supreme god Velez - Volos, the creator of perun - lightnings who in Christian Russian consciousness was replaced by Saint Nikolay was a Creator of a lightning, apparently,
(as well as Velez - Volos) - the lord of waters both terrestrial, and heavenly. So B. A. Uspensky notes that in the Russian North Nikola was called “ the apostle Tucha - Terrible “ (i.e. the cloud generating a thunder and lightnings about what it was told above). Nikola irrigates fields with dew. The rain on the St. Nicholas Day is considered especially favorable omen...
Nikola is in the Russian religious consciousness “ sea god “ (from here Nikola Morsky`s temples). It is worth paying special attention that the belief occurs at Slavs that the sinking person cannot be rescued since to drown - happiness, a symbol of an izbrannichestvo and on water to soul the easiest to get on a next world.
Nikola (as well as Velez - Volos) is connected with the world of ancestors. He is a Lord in a kingdom of the dead.
So B. A. Uspensky, telling about funeral feast (a funeral meal), notes communication of the words “ funeral feast, triznitsa “ with sacrifice of a three-year-old sacrificial bull-calf “ mikolets “.
One their holidays devoted to St. Nikolay corresponds in Russia to the Maundy Thursday. Custom to wash a log hut this day reminds custom to wash a log hut after the dead man.
In the same day devoted to Nikola called to Father Frost and invited him to a meal with a request not to beat a harvest. Let`s notice that the term “ grandfather “ in the ancient time treated only the ancestor, and in the ordinary speech it was forbidden and it was replaced with the address “ dyadko “ or “ old man “. As we see
, Father Frost, undoubtedly, is connected with Velez - Volos and Nikola.
But there is more to come...]