What to frighten ghouls by?- The one who was mistaken in the first button will not clasp a camisole, - I. Goethe said.
The researches conducted on materials of various cultures and the people led to quite convincing conclusion that long time our ancestors did in general without buttons!
There were quite enough belts and ties for a fastening of clothes at the beginning of a civilization. Also clothes of the Scythians wandering on broad lands of steppes of Eastern Europe did not need fasteners at all. These long-haired and bearded equestrians just drew short leather caftans belts. At the same time the vertical board of a caftan was plowed on the left. On gold a pektorala it is possible to consider furniture of the presented characters well. Images of buttons will not manage to be found there, and here the fact that caftans were short and were plowed on the left, gold witnesses will confirm.
In the modern world the tradition of a Scythian caftan is successfully carried on by the Japanese kimonos, the Central Asian dressing gowns, Circassians and chekmen of the Caucasian Dzhigits. All of them easily do without buttons and today.
Greeks and Romans put on through the tunic head with a wide roundish collar. They did not know about buttons, and did not need them. And here antique soldiers fastened raincoats on the right shoulder with metal fasteners - fibula. These graceful products from silver and bronze the principle of action by something remind a modern safety pin. Women of fashion of the Mediterranean fastened tonkotkany tunics with couple tiny fibul, quite often decorated with a relief pattern and enamel.
“ Barbarous “ tribes of the Central and Northern Europe, being in constant military and trade contacts with a classical antiquity, quickly adopted fashion on the Roman fasteners. This tradition of a fastening of clothes remained on our continent for a long time. Intricacy of execution strike with grace of finishing, fancifulness of design the fibula of an era of Vikings which left masterful Scandinavian jewelers shining on raincoats of combatants and zngat of times of Rurik and Vladimir Svyaty.
Quite usual find for medieval Russian settlements. The button was sewn for an ear to one party of clothes, on the second party the eyelet from a band was sewn. The button was passed throughout a loop and connection thus was fixed. The same principle is used by Chinese in fasteners of the dressing gowns, the thick small knot acts only as a button.
of the Button of the same look and the size find on all medieval settlements, from Novgorod to Belarus. And in in the Volga city of Bulgarians (near Kuibyshev) and in the Shed - Burke also find such buttons, but generally spherical shape - cast, hollow, gilded. All such buttons are dated generally the XIV-XV centuries.
A collar - the shirt which was directly adjoining to a body was sewed with infinite magic precautions, it had to not only warm, but also drive away the forces of evil, and - to keep soul in a body. So, when cut a collar, by all means dragged the cut-out rag in future attire: movement “ inside “ designated preservation, accumulation of vital forces, “ outside “ - expense, loss. This last took great pain to avoid not to draw trouble upon the person.
According to ancient, followed anyway “ to secure “ ee the necessary openings which were available in ready-to-wear clothes: collar, hem, sleeves. As a charm served the embroidery containing various sacred images and magic symbols here. The pagan sense of national embroideries is very well traced from the most ancient samples before quite modern works, not without reason scientists consider an embroidery as an important source in studying of ancient religion. This subject is really immense, the huge number of scientific works is devoted to it. Slavic shirts had no turn-down collars. Sometimes it is possible to restore something similar on modern “ stoyechka “. Most often the section at a collar was done to straight lines - in the middle of a breast, but happened also a braid, on the right or at the left.
Buttoned a collar.
In archeological finds prevail buttons bronze and copper, but researchers believe that metal remained in the earth simply better. In life for certain met made of simple improvised materials more often - a bone and a tree.
It is easy to guess that the collar was especially “ magically important “ a clothes detail - through it in case of death the soul took off. Wishing whenever possible to it to prevent, the collar was so plentifully equipped with a guarding embroidery (sometimes containing - of course, at those who were able to afford it, - gold sewing, pearls and jewels) that over time it turned in separate “ shoulder “ part of clothes - “ " necklace; (“ the fact that carry around a throat “) or “ to an oplechya “. It was sewn, fastened or at all put on separately.
The first similarity of modern buttons - round plates with a double opening on the back - appear in East Baltic during era of the late Stone Age. Originally made of " amber; buttons “ served for our far ancestors as charms from action of hostile forces of the other world. Only during an era of the tsar of Huns - Attila (5th century AD) the population present North - the western boundaries of Russia begins to produce functional buttons. These bronze hemispheres with an eyelet on inside clasped a collar of shirts of ancient pruss. The same buttons were known in the o-XI centuries by residents of the Old Russian cities. In these epic times also direct forerunners of modern buttons - bone disks with the only opening appear. Coexisting with bronze fibula, single buttons were accessory of a next-to-skin shirt.
Only with penetration into Europe of West Asian fashion in the form of long Byzantine attires series of buttons, ranks of the decorating clothes gate appear. It appears, the coddled orientals used all conveniences of buttons for a long time.
Main " type; button “ clothes there was a caftan which got into Eastern Europe from the Muslim East in the X century. Describing clothes of the Varangians moving across Volga, the Arab historian Ibn - Fadlan without fail mentions: “... haftan brocade with buttons from gold... “. These caftans - direct predecessors of modern coats and jackets - were buttoned both on the center, and with a smell on the left. The last line was characteristic of the Russian kosovorotkas and homespun coats literally to the first Soviet five-years periods. Any photo of the putting-on all-Union head Michal Ivanycha of Kalinin the best for that confirmation. He in the most ceremonial moments of life is depicted in a kosovorotka. Thus, all attempts of Peter I to enter in Russia tradition of the Western European fastener to the right in the people of support were not met.
And about the word “ button “.
Each word has the sources. And the button did not remain unaddressed researchers. Its value stores in itself roots of ancient ritual outlook. Our ancestors considered a collar of the clothes as very important detail of an attire not only in practical, but also in the mystical plan. Harmful spirits could not be allowed to so important part of a body of the person freely. In this regard all fibula and the most ancient buttons were supplied with jewelers the most difficult exorcized patterns urged to avert from the owner of clothes of undesirable visitors - demons. Therefore also Old Russian word “ button “ as paleolingvist believe, came from the word “ pugat “ (ghosts, ghouls and other mermaids, eager for others neck).]