Toulouse - Lautrec: what role of the woman in his life and creativity?of Henri Mari Raymond De Toulouz - Lautrec (Toulouse - Lautrec) (on November 24, 1864, Albi - on September 9, 1901, the lock to de Malroma, near Bordeaux), the French schedule and the painter. The master sharp, time of venomous characteristics, flexible, vigorous drawing (posters, compositions on subjects of life of the Parisian bohemia).
The representative of the most ancient aristocratic family, he got a good house education, since the childhood perfectly drew. Lautrec master of grotesque: several prompt, exact strokes and on a leaf arise terribly well-aimed, recognizable image.
Specifics of art Toulouse - Lautrec is shown in his graphic works. Since 1886 he lived on Montmartre where he found the plots answering to its art warehouse. The master immortalized representatives of the Parisian world of entertainments. At Toulouse - Lautrec there are favourite characters: the singers, dancers who are marked out by bright identity and talent. Famous La Gulyu “ Dance in “ Mulen - Ruzh “ “ To La Gul, entering in “ Mulen - Ruzh “. Among these favourite characters a specific place is held by the singer Ivette Guilbert (1867-1944), a star of Montmartre, with the characteristic person, a thin nose, thin hands in black " gloves; Ivette Guilbert sings the English song “ (1894, Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow).
1890 - 1896 were for Toulouse - Lautrec time the most intensive and more fruitful in creative activity. During this period it reached true skill. It especially fully expressed the face and attitude in painting and graphic works.
was considered as One of the most fruitful years of this time - both on abundance and on high quality of works - there was 1894. The master`s biographers quite often call him “ year of Ivette Guilbert “ as acquaintance to this most interesting representative of the world “ semi-actors “ and work on its image of steel defining for activity of the master during this period. For several months the singer was the main object of attention of Lautrec. It became one of the most favourite its models for what as it will be told below, there were serious creative reasons. It inspired him on creation of excellent drawings, picturesque compositions and lithographs. Lautrec depicted her even in material not peculiar to it - ceramics. Ivette Guilbert (1867 - 1944) was one of the brightest “ stars “ sparkling in the artistic sky of Paris in 1890 - e years. It had huge success and won attention even of the most exacting public. Ivette Guilbert`s
absolutely subdued it, and he followed it on heels. As every time when he was fond of the model, he was not tired to observe the person, poses, behavior of this woman with “ a profile ozornogolebedya - the joker “ “ which sang wedding songs on funeral motives “. All models of Lautrec which he drew, wrote or represented on lithographs, were related something each other, all of them he forced to enter the world. With Ivette Guilbert it was easy to be made, she was it “ type “. It attracted it first of all with the appearance. It consciously turned itself into a certain grotesque; not only without hiding, but, emphasizing and beating those features of the appearance which on concepts and tastes of its time could seem almost a disgrace. She managed to derive benefit and a certain effect from all the characteristic shortcomings - leanness, pallor, a flat breast, a little head on a long neck which it is randomly skillful to truncate, to extend unreasonably. The singer still increased too big mouth lipstick, and safely bared bony shoulders and the acting clavicles and even emphasized, putting on in light - white or biryuzovo - green - and very open dress. The black bows which were puffing up on shoulders and the black gloves reaching almost shoulders finished this extravagant attire.
With what Lautrec - coal, a brush, a lithographic pencil would not work, - he got into soul of the model, got used to its image, studied her body, the person, her sticking-out bones, subclavial and axillary hollows, her long hands, a neck, her running-up eyebrows, the red chignon, an ostrenky chin which its is hitched up as if it catches rain droplets, a nose. An eye of the artist was cruel. In the course of creativity the artist often shows violence, acts as the usurper.
In 1894 Toulouse - Lautrec together with the art critic of the La justice magazine Gustave Geffroi published an album of the lithographs devoted to Ivette Guilbert. This album was republished in London in 1898 and was followed by Artur Bill`s text (Wittrock 1985, No. 69). During this period the set of small sketches among which and the drawing " was created; Ivette Guilbert “.
was written to this period lithograph Toulouse - Lautrec “ Singer Ivette Guilbert “ which still is called “ Ivette Guilbert sings the English song “ Linger longer, Loo “ it is written in 1894. It is executed: distemper, oil, cardboard. Size: 56 x 41 cm. Which is stored in a collection of Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts of Moscow.
The character Toulouse - Lautrec is grabbed at a certain, critical and short moment: just preliminary development of a portrait formula allows to be limited only to minimum. Thus, instantaneousness of supervision, short duration of a condition of model and a manner of lithograph receive full unity: they do not demand concentration and duration of perception, they are fleeting and calculated on short-term perception on the run, but at the same time differs in special complexity and refinement of composition. And in it there is no contradiction. It works bright local color and spots. But the line defining extreme expressiveness of contours appears the leading forming element always, and the artist very thinly uses the accord of these contours, lines, silhouettes.
Toulouse - Lautrec skillfully creates the bright, well memorable image, is able to choose a high point, to emphasize a pose. The real form in its work submits to dictatorship effective, elegant arabesques, the plot is laconic, color already from a distance beats with a bright spot.
Lautrec uses mainly two elements of lithograph: sharp line and intensive spot. In its works these elements always harmoniously connect for the benefit of expressiveness of a leaf. He forces the viewer to be the most active in perception of an engraving, prefers a fragment whole, and grotesque - to the quiet narration. Deformations Toulouse - Lautrec submit to laws of effectiveness of a leaf: it is always very far from a caricature, as if it distorted lines or volumes how exaggerated appearance. His portrait - always a symbol, almost model signs, but not a sneer at it. Its deformations follow from conditions of activity and characters of his characters: Montmartre “ stars “ the main characters of its posters not to grow dim in the opinion of the exacting and satiated public and somehow to be distinguished from the fellows were forced to resort to various tricks. From here extravagance of their manner of performance, shape, a make-up, hairdresses, toilets which had to be engraved in the memory of the audience. And on lithograph “ Singer Ivette Guilbert “ he used rich decorative effect of comparison fashionable brightly - red hair-dyeing with cold bluish, gray, green tones with a black spot. Thus, artificial “ typicalness “ and “ grotesqueness “ his character, worked in many respects her, coincided with the fact that Lautrec looked for, and helped it to find especially means of expression of the individual characteristic.
Ivette Guilbert who was the main object of attention of Lautrec exerted huge impact on his creativity. It was it “ type “. And first of all the singer attracted it with the original appearance. It worked on its image much. As the result of his creativity was let out an album which included sixteen lithographs with its image.]