Rus Articles Journal

Eternal name Mozart: whether his owner is familiar to you?

Mozart (Mozart) Wolfgang Amadeus (27. 1. 1756, Salzburg, - 5. 12. 1791, Vienna), Austrian composer. Mozart is distinguished from the most great masters of music with early blossoming of powerful and comprehensive talent, singularity of vital destiny - from triumphs of the child prodigy before heavy fight for existence and recognition at mature age, unprecedented courage of the artist who preferred a precarious existence of the independent master to humiliating service of the despot - grandees, and, at last, comprehensive value of the creativity covering almost all genres of music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart`s life as any other genius, rolls in myths and legends. Many arose soon after his death, some were born later, but all are surprisingly hardy still. Through centuries to us not to consider the truth any more that gives the soil for the multicalculated treatments of myths and their revelations.

1. Mozart was called Wolfgang Amadeus.

At a baptism named Mozart Johann Hrizostom Wolfgang Teofil. Greek Teofil in German means Gottlieb and in Latin - Amadeus (that is loving God ) . From all three options Amadeus is best of all aurally is perceived. Mozart to himself also chose this name.

2. Mozart was a unique person, by miracle; he created joking, and everything came to him unusually easily.

Is unconditional, Mozart was a musical genius, possessed phenomenal abilities. But behind its masterpieces there is a titanic work, it tensely also worked hard. Excessively there is a lot of since the earliest childhood. Mozart`s genius was shown years from three. His father, the famous teacher and the musician serving at court of the Salzburg prince was engaged in training of the son at once. Little Mozart easily repeated playlets after the sister and easily remembered them. In four years he composed the first concerto for a harpsichord, and in six - masterly played a harpsichord, a violin and body. To Mozart also six years when his long concert tour began were not executed: together with the sister Anna, too the talented performer, and the mentor the father young Wolfgang visited a floor - Europe. For several years they gave concerts in Munich, Paris, Vienna, London, visited Holland and Switzerland. The public admired the boy who could play blindfold, masterly improvised, executed the most difficult passages on an equal basis with adult musicians... The genius was only seven years old when the sonatas composed by him for a piano and a violin published in Paris. Of course, children were exhausted by these trips. In way Wolfgang and Nannerl often were ill, more than once were on the brink of disaster. Both of them had both pneumonia, and smallpox. There is an opinion that the reason of early death of Mozart - in diseases which he got in days of the heavy childhood. During the travel Mozart took lessons, met huge number of composers and musicians of that time, mastered different musical styles and languages. It is impossible to find other composer who with such gloss as Mozart, owned the most various genres and forms: it belongs to the symphony and a concert, a divertissement and a quartet, the opera and a mass, the sonata and a trio. In total feather of Mozart possesses more than 600 works practically of all main musical genres - symphonies, chamber ensembles, concerts, songs, arias, masses, cantatas.

3. Mozart lived in poverty; contemporaries did not appreciate his talent.

Mozart is considered a classical example of how outstanding actors are exploited by ruling class, earning scanty reward. Actually, Mozart received very decent royalties. In one hour of teaching it made out a bill in 2 guldens (for comparison - his servant received 12 guldens a year) for a piano. In 1782 - m Mozart`s opera Stealing from a seraglio made huge success. For several years it gave a set of piano concerts. And though, sometimes, he did not receive a payment for the work, very often paid it the huge fees (for comparison: the annual salary of the father Mozart in Salzburg made 350 florins, and his son could receive three times more for one concert). On personal correspondence it is visible that degree of poverty of a family in myths is considerably exaggerated. However the extravagant way of life quickly ate all money. Somehow, having earned the fabulous sum for performance, Mozart spent it in two weeks. The friend to whom the genius came to borrow money, asked: You have neither lock, nor a stable, nor the expensive mistress, nor a lot of children... Where you put money? And Mozart answered: But I have a wife Constanta! It - my lock, my herd of thoroughbred horses, my mistress and my a lot of children... Children in a family was born six, but four of them died in infancy. Rod Motsartov was interrupted on sons Karl Thomas and Franz Xawer who did not get posterity. Braque Mozart which he entered without the permission of the father, it was happy. Wolfgang and Constanta were similar, both differed in the easy and joyful relation to life. There is a legend that once in the winter to them the guest came and found them dancing: Motsarta tried to be warmed, without having money for firewood... However even then, when in Vienna the whimsical public ceased to listen to Mozart`s operas and his creativity got out of fashion the composer continued to receive the quite good royalties from other countries of Europe, and also a court salary.

4. Mozart wrote the requiem on the death.

the gray stranger was knocked in the Autumn evening at Mozart`s door It ordered the requiem for a task of the owner, count Valzegg - Shtuppakh who recently buried the wife. Having a presentiment of the fast death, obsessed with dark thoughts, Mozart began to compose the requiem - for himself. So the legend narrates. However, if to judge by Mozart correspondence of the last months of life, it was in fine mood. And his death became shock for a family and friends. (Here Salieri just wrote the requiem on the death in 1804 - m. But died much later, in 1825 - m). Also causes of death of Mozart are disputable. His illness proceeded very quickly, and on December 5, 1791 Wolfgang Amadeus died in awful sufferings from severe fever . What caused fever, not clearly, and there is no wonder for that level of development of medicine. The genius was treated by the best Vienna doctors by the methods accepted at that time. (As a result of the bloodlettings prescribed it, by calculations, Mozart lost about two liters of blood.) It is quite probable that that year in Vienna there was epidemic of inflammatory infectious diseases, something like flu. Though theories about the illness which killed the genius, tens: from trichinosis to poisoning.

5. It is buried in oblivion.

Mozart was buried in a mass grave of poor people... On a cemetery he was seen off by the one and only person... The widow refused to come to a funeral... The rich friend of the family van Sviten regretted money for burial... All this not absolutely so. Among reforms of the Austrian emperor Josef there were new funeral rules. According to them, burials were from now on brought out of city boundaries (before in Europe the custom prospered to bury the dead in the center, at the main cathedral). Procedure of a funeral was extremely simplified. 85% of city burials were made in common graves on which it was not allowed to establish any memorable signs (saved the place). Each 7 - 8 years of a grave dug over and used again. The widow did not go behind a coffin to a cemetery, and it was in the nature of things too. The ceremony of memory of Mozart took place in his Masonic lodge. The catafalque went to a cemetery only after six in the evening. It was not accepted to follow it for city gate, no ceremonies in the place of burial then were arranged, and there were at it only grave-diggers. And avaricious van Sviten generously paid several years for training of sons of Mozart, organized the first performance of its requiem, arranged concerts in favor of Konstantsa and children in the different cities of Europe.

6. It is sacrificed by masons.

Mozart, as well as his many contemporaries, was fond of ideas of a freemasonry and was a member of Masonic lodge (together with the friend Haydn). Its last opera, Magic flute contains Masonic subjects and allegories. But... Farther conjectures: allegedly it seemed to heads of an award that the opera too of a karikaturn, besides they knew that Mozart was going to create the secret society. Here also the genius the victim of anti-Christian Masonic plot fell: masons poisoned him with mercury, intentionally hid traces of a grave and stole from it a skull for the ceremonies. This myth was cultivated by nazis; remembered it later. According to the theory 60 - x years of the 20th century, Mozart`s death became sacrifice at consecration of the new Masonic temple.

7. Mozart and Salieri.

that Mozart was poisoned began to say soon after his death: the subject of poisons and poisonings was at that time extremely popular. And in spite of the fact that in early biographies of Mozart this version all, including the wife denied Constanta, rumors did not stop. Passed about 30 years from the date of Mozart`s death when in this myth Antonio Salieri, at that time already seriously ill person appeared. According to those who were near it those years, Salieri never did recognition that destroyed Mozart as approved newspapers. Perhaps, Pushkin in newspapers read about these rumors and immortalized them in the history about genius and villainy . Later this subject sounded in Pieter Schaffer`s play Amadeus on which Milosh Forman`s movie was shot. However there are no historical evidences about hostility of two composers. On the contrary, the return is well documented: delighted statements of Salieri about Mozart; Mozart`s story about how Salieri was on submission of its opera. To Mozart Salieri had no bases for envy: so, the last almost did not compose instrumental music, and in an opera genre Salieri`s reputation among contemporaries was much higher. It is known that Mozart chose Salieri as the teacher for the son Franz. By the way, among numerous pupils there is Salieri who played a huge role in musical life of Europe, there were Beethoven, Common people, Meyerbeer, Schubert, Liszt...

8. Mozart`s effect.

This term belongs to a set of inconsistent scientific conclusions that classical music quickly (for about 15 - 20 minutes) increases some mental capacities of the person (for example, spatial thinking). And that it is useful to listen to Mozart in a cradle for infantile mind. Passive listening of works of Mozart, or classical music in general, does not lead neither to short-term, nor to continuous increase of mental abilities. The German scientists came to such conclusions during the research conducted by request of the Ministry of Education and Science of Germany. That is the certain positive effect lasting no more than 20 minutes after listening was found, but it was shown from any music and even reading.]