Rus Articles Journal

The quantum computer - the myth or reality?

Among inventions which have to change the world in the XXI century before recent time were high on the list hypothetical " computer; under the name quantum " computer;. And here the future came: On February 13 the Canadian company D - Wave held the presentation of the first-ever processor using the principle of quantum calculations in California.

A difference between quantum computers and silicon, as between silicon and wooden accounts. " computer; Orion D-Wave possesses 16 - the kubitny processor capable to serve 65 536 computing streams in the quantum spaces.

In other words: today there was a possibility of creation of the car which will be able to carry out such calculations, but which at present computers will leave centuries in few hours.

D-Wave meanwhile in 2008 is going to create system in 1 thousand qubit that will allow to process more data flows, than there is particles in the Universe, and an access for programmers for work with Orion it will be open this year.

The main idea of quantum calculation consists in storing data in atomic nuclei, changing their orientation. The elementary cell of such computer received the name quantum bit (quantum bit = qubit). Unlike information unit habitual to us - bit (binary digits = bits) which can understand only two values or 0 or 1 the quantum bit according to the principle of uncertainty postulated by quantum mechanics can be at the same time in a state and 0 and 1 .

Thus if the classical computer consisting of the L computing cells is capable to carry out at the same time the L operations, then for the quantum device of L qubit in size the number of the operations which are carried out in parallel will be equal 2 in degree of L.

Now small lirichesko - technological retreat.

If you believe that Windows is that program on which in the world the greatest number of licenses is sold, then you cruelly are mistaken. The most widespread operating system is advanced by a modest product of firm RSA Data Security, Inc. - the program realizing the algorithm of enciphering with an open key of RSA called so in honor of his authors - Rivest, Shamir and Adelman.

Why the algorithm of RSA was so important? The matter is that for a solution of the problem of a safe exchange of confidential messages in 1970 - x years the systems of enciphering using two types of keys for one and that message were offered: opened (not demanding storage in secret) and the closed (strictly confidential). The open key serves for enciphering of the message, and closed - for its decoding. You send to your correspondent an open key, and it ciphers the message with its help. Everything that the malefactor who intercepted an open key can make is to cipher them the letter and to send it to somebody. But he will not manage to decipher correspondence.

Calculations show that with use even thousands modern the worker of stations and the best of computing algorithms known for today one 250 - the-place number can be factorized approximately for 800 thousand years, and 1000-place - for 10 in 25 - y degrees (!) of years. (For comparison the age of the Universe is equal ~ 10 in 10 degrees of years.)

On it lyrical digression in the present comes to an end and begins the forecast for the future.

And so, according to estimates, the quantum computer with memory only about 10 thousand quantum bits is capable to spread out 1000-place number to simple multipliers within several hours! And it means that we are on the threshold of a new era in the field of cryptography. However, the cryptography is a separate special case of those grandiose technological changes which wait for us. Already opportunities quantum 16 - the kubitny processor allow to come to such information technologies against which creation of an integrated chip or Internet will seem only an episode.

D - Wave Systems could solve a number of serious problems: namely - found a way of realization of qubits (in other words, defined what to do them of - superconducting materials on the basis of niobium are used), defined the physical mechanism of interaction between qubits and found a way of selective management of qubits and measurements of their quantum state at the exit of system.

Its quantum computer successfully coped with three offered tasks - search of molecular structure, the corresponding concrete molecule - a target, drawing up a complicated plan of accommodation of guests at a table and the solution of a puzzle to Sudok. Skromnenko, you will tell? Try to solve these problems for the acceptable time by ordinary car.

So the first step is the hardest!]