Rus Articles Journal

How there was an Internet?

the Official

version in the middle of 60 - x years of last century the Ministry of Defence of the USA for works on the numerous projects finances installation of computers (then they were incredibly dear, tons weighed and occupied half-rooms 8) in several universities of America. In the Pentagon from office of agency of perspective research projects (ARPA) a certain Robert Taylor remotely coordinates collaboration of these computers. To connect only three cars, it holds a huge number of teams because at that time each computer had the language and system of input in the head. Seeking to simplify work to itself and others, Taylor conceives to develop the uniform software and the same terminals. Having directly addressed the administration, he proves that the computers connected together will solve problems more effectively, plus will facilitate the scientist communication at distance. To develop the first-ever ARPENET network Taylor invites the scientist from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lourents Roberts. Their idea was in that communication between computers was carried out by special station IMP (Interface Message Processor) which by their order was created by the BBN company.

For the first time data transmission from the computer on the computer took place on August 30, 1969, and in two years of ARPANET contained already twenty three connected terminals. 1972 - y became year of birth of e-mail which is originally working at two programs of sending and readings letters (them the engineer of BBN Raymond Tomlinson wrote).

Development of computer networks appeared in a shadow of space programs and race of arms. Nevertheless, they became more and more, and they it is unceasing branched. When there was a need to unite them, again there were problems with compatibility as recently at separate computers. Two persons undertook to improve situation: mathematician Robert Kan and programmer Vinton Serf. For a start they suggested to divide all information on " packages; - so it is simpler to work with it: to send, receive and decipher. Then wrote the program by means of which one computer coordinated work of several networks. In abbreviated form this program which became the tool future " Networks; called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - the Protocol of Management of Transfer / the Gateway Protocol). During an instant when through TCP/IP several networks united with ARPANET, the Internet was born fall of 1977!

Actually

the logical question Arises: really the Ministry of Defence of the USA invested billions of dollars only in what it would be simpler to scientist to communicate? It is trusted hardly. It is possible that that was covered under good intentions...

B 1949 of the USSR tests a nuclear bomb, a bit later hydrogen, and in 1957 - the m shows means of their delivery on the example of start of the first artificial satellite of Earth. The American military really were frightened - then there were no means of protection from strategic rockets yet. The Pentagon receives unlimited financing of works on creation of system of the early notification of NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence Command) from the White House.

to Build a network of radar stations from Alaska to Greenland through the North of Canada - still half-affairs. The data on air objects obtained from them needed to be processed, revealing menacing, and, the main thing, instantly to react to them. The human brain is not able to do this work. But the artificial intelligence is able.

connected the Set of computers to uniform control center, having connected to it control services aviaflights - military, civil, meteorological stations and other posts of supervision over the sky. That is long before ARPANET in the USA the most real computer network of strategic appointment appeared.

Soon gives the USSR a new surprise in the form of the 50 megatons warheads, with prospect of placement them under the nose at Americans - in Cuba. No bunker or the rocky massif will protect the command post of NORAD from hit of everything of one such rocket. An exit was seen in the distributed communication networks with several junction stations instead of one main. The theory of similar networks at the beginning of 60 - x was developed by Paul Barend, having specially adapted them to conditions of nuclear opposition. He suggested to replace with the first an unreliable analog signal digital. The civil telecommunication companies viewed idea with skepticism, but military grasped at it.

was required for the Ministry of Defence of the USA the ground for a running in of all these projects, but will not experiment with system of national security! It was necessary to finance a third-party network, installing expensive (to one hundred thousands of dollars) computers at technological universities remote from each other. Military completely controlled works on ARPANET, they introduced TCP/IP in all computers. Then the Pentagon left a network scene, having snipped off itself the part of ARPANET called by MILNET (a military network). The remained network transferred to National scientific fund (NSF) was called by NSFNET. Having absorbed other networks, NSFNET developed into INTERNET.

having Morally become outdated, ARPANET stopped the existence in 1990.

WWW

Before 80 - x the Internet seemed to the inhabitant in unimaginably difficult piece: convenient programs for work in it were absent, from - for what it was necessary to learn a large number of special teams. To apply hypertext references to navigation in the Network Englishman Tim Bernes - Li, the employee of CERN (The European center of nuclear researches) guessed. Puzzled with the management to create the uniform program interface for CERN computers, in the spring of 1989 it submitted the " program; World Wide Web . In CERN gave WWW quite a cold reception - all - a local network, unlike the Internet, has the foreseeable sizes. The Englishman did not despair, and in August, 1991 - go free of charge laid out the program in a network. It literally blew up network community presentation and usability. From now on to walk on the Internet any could, able to click a mouse on the screen. Programmers rushed to create the web - pages, and the volume of information transferred in the new standard, as well as the number of the computers connected to the Internet, grows on hours.

The virtual market

Maintenance costs of the spreading Internet grew that did not suit the American government financing it. Then they release the Network in free commercial floating, having legalized on November 23, 1992 trade in it. Vprchem in a network traded earlier, but it is semi-legal.

the First striking example of network commercial success when, without selling anything, it is possible to become the rich, there was a Mosaic browser. It was written by group of students led by Mark Andresson. Free of charge laid out in a network, Mosaic most fully used possibilities of WWW. In a couple of years there is its improved option - Netscape Navigator, and again is free. And in half a year the Netscape Communication company exposes the actions at the exchange, in the first day of the auction increased in cost three times. So the company for nothing distributing the product earned more than four billion dollars!

Such here entertaining reflections. I am glad to wish all good luck and good luck, I wait for comments!]