Heads or tails? Everyone will understandabout what the speech.
About the most reliable throwing of a lot, certainly. What will drop out when you throw a coin? Heads or tails?
But why the eagle, and who such tails drops out?
So it developed that the ingot of metal of a certain form, weight, test and advantage which serves as the legalized currency is called as as a coin .
The name “ coin “ comes from a name of the goddess Juno Moneta (tutor) whose temple was on the Capitol in Rome. The metallic currency minted on a mint at Juno Moneta`s temple began to be called in Rome, and later - and in other countries, coins. The first coins appeared at a turn of the VIII-VII centuries on the coast of Asia Minor B.C.
The science about coins is called numismatics.
Is the auxiliary historical discipline studying history of monetary stamping and monetary circulation. The Greek noun " is the cornerstone of this word; nomos “ - the law, lawful means of payment and derivative of it “ nomizm “ - payment, money.
From the moment of the beginning of stamping of coins in the 7th century B.C. in the territory of modern Turkey the molotochny method was used up to the nineteenth century. Jewelers were the first carvers of stamps, most likely.
Chinese made coins by a casting method since the fifth century B.C. To the middle of the nineteenth century this method was applied also in Morocco.
The screw press was invented in 1508 in Florence by the artist Bramante who did on it medals. Thirty years later other Florentine - Benvenuto Cellini - began to use him for production of small coins.
B established this type of a press to 1555 on the Parisian mint.
Other type of a press - roller - was invented by Leonardo da Vinci. This type of a press in total with a water wheel as the engine made coins of a metal tape which was stretched between two roller stamps. It was in such a way possible to make coins of the bigger size and the best quality, than a screw press and molotochny stamping. From the middle of the 16th century similar cars were used on mints of the Central Europe - in Germany, Austria, Hungary.
The collecting of coins in Europe arose in Renaissance at first in Italy, and then in other countries. Then the first works explaining images and inscriptions on coins began to appear. The founder of systematic scientific research in the field of numismatics the Austrian scientific I. I. Ekkel (1737 - 1798) - the author of the eight-volume work " is considered; Science about ancient coins “ the 18th century published in Vienna last decade.
In Russia the foundation to a collecting of coins was laid by Peter I who bought in 1721 in Hamburg a numismatical collection of Moders for cabinet of curiosities. The first numismatical composition in Russia was printed by the academician Bayer in St. Petersburg in 1734. The collection of the State Hermitage includes 63360 antique, 220000 east, 360000 Western European and 300000 Russian coins today, covering the period from 7th century BC to our days.
the First domestic coins were a zlatnik and a silver coin of the 10th century.
their stamping began in Kievan Rus` at Vladimir Svyatoslavovich. The appearance and was weight the zlatnik is similar to the Byzantine Solid.
Nowadays is available only ten zlatnik. All of them are rapped out by five couples of stamps. A community of stamp couples at so insignificant quantity of coins confirm short duration of their stamping. Therefore, zlatnik of the prince Vladimir was let out slightly.
Silver coins of the first types reminded the Byzantine coins too.
The first of the known silver coins was found in 1792 in Kiev among privesok to icons.
The ruble is the most habitual, a name of a coin, widespread and native for us.
Ruble as a coin exists more than 350 years but as the Russian monetary unit it has more than 700 - summer history. At the end of the 13th century the Novgorod bar of silver in the form of a chopped stick - whetstone weighing about 200 g began to be called ruble.
In the second half of the 14th century in the Russian principalities stamping of the Russian silver coin - money began. Its weight corresponded 1/200 ruble - an ingot. Stamping of money is connected with fight of the grand duke Dmitry Donskoy (1362 - 1389) against Tatars. By the beginning of the 15th century money was minted by many grand and specific dukes, and since 1420 began to let out the coin in Novgorod and since 1425 in Pskov.
Except emperors, tsars - kings and other autocrats on obverses of various coins can be found in the different countries of the world scientists, travelers, politicians, military and even artists and writers.
Each state itself solves how to it to decorate the coins.
In the African Zambia, for example, let out an oval coin with a color portrait of the Norwegian researcher of the Arctic Rual Amudsen. To them, zambiyets, as they say, more visible whom and why to mint on own coins of 1000 kwacha.
Not all know that Mao Dzedun`s profile in 1993 - on the occasion of century - was rapped out on coins of one yuan. And the circulation of coins was such is that was enough for each Chinese.
Was not equal to Stalin in the world by quantity of monuments and the cities of the same name in the country. However he did not want to see the profile on coins also during lifetime and after death on them did not appear. Because treated coins first of all, as something unworthy, a monetary trifle - contemptuously - a pier if a coin, then by all means change.
Lenin`s profile decorates several modifications of ruble and is the integral component of any Soviet numismatical collection.
Rubles were printed by special anniversary circulations with Pushkin, Gagarin, Mendeleyev, the first printer Fedorov Ivan, Korolev, Karl Marx, certainly, Lomonosov, many others most high the approved characters including with Taras Shevchenko.
By the way, Czechs, to a primr, coined hundred kroner in silver with Yury Gagarin to the twentieth anniversary of flight - in 1981.
Face value - one ruble - not always even initially coincided with the collection cost of a coin.
As well as cost of precious metal in coins absolutely not necessarily coincides with its real purchasing power.
Moneta to a coin discord and, of course, the Soviet anniversary rubles which were issued multimillion circulations which after collapse of the USSR by the river rushed abroad cannot cost much there.
Though there are among them those that meet less often than others, for example - “ Pushkin “.
Expensive thing has to be remote, rare, and it is better - unique.
of Examples of that among coins a set, is an and rare Greek tetradrachma, one of the most valuable coins on the planet. Ee call “ Mona Lisa “ ancient bank notes. More than 100 years Tetradrakhm from the Greek Etna was stored in a private collection. Its approximate age - two and a half thousand years. The silver coin weighing 17 grams is in perfect tune and strikes with skill of an engraving. Experts find it difficult to call even the approximate cost of a coin.
Konstantin`s ruble, is estimated by some catalogs at one million pounds sterling. Around a unique gold American dvadtsatidollarovik of the beginning of the XX century the million auction is developed too.
Of course, such coins meet extremely seldom. But that prevents us to get accustomed attentively to contents of the purses, among the coins and banknotes which are in use there are those which meet considerably less than others, and they have the collection cost already now, but about it as - nibud, another time. How the coin will lay down - heads or tails?
By the way, the Soviet anniversary rubles which are let out in 1970 by century of V. I. Lenin, periodically “ emerge “ in Switzerland. At all not in collections of numismatists, and in automatic machines for sale of any goods.
The matter is that both by the size, and on weight, and in structure of an alloy of a coin with Ilyich`s profile are strikingly similar to the Swiss tuna (coins of 5 francs). This similarity also led to small fraud in the European state. Only in automatic machines for sale of train tickets in Bern 600 " was found; Lenin “ rubles! Local railway company “ Aare Zeeland Mobil “ having sustained annoying losses, was forced to forbid use of tun in automatic machines.
Very few people from tyrants in different corners of the world resisted temptation to immortalize himself on coins. At all set and value of ancient - eternal - antique coins which for centuries store stamping profiles of heroes of bastards and rascals, - a limit and contemporaries are not visible to vain aspirations. Pleasure for the real and future collectors.
The facts demonstrate that Buratino was not the first sower of coins - evil tongues claimed that else in 1174 Raymond V, the columns Toulouse ordered to open the earth at the lock and to seed 3000 gold coins. He sincerely believed that he will reap a quite good crop in the fall.
Can be and really something grew?
Anyway serious science about coins and their collecting were born much later …
B in Austria cast 2004 the biggest in the world a gold coin. Weight its exactly one thousand ounces (one ounce, we will remind - 28. 34952 grams, and troy ounce = 31. 10348 gr.) gold of the highest test. On an obverse the Vienna body is represented. Also coin cost in euro is specified. it is hard for
to throw Such coin to test - heads or tails.
The tails - so in pre-revolutionary Russia were called the party of a coin, opposite to an eagle . On the first nation-wide coins of the small face values which appeared after monetary reform of Peter I on a reverse the face value and year of a chekan which are usually overloaded with a set of decorative elements that was perceived by the population just as a lattice were specified (from where went to life and the name took roots: lattice, that is “ tails “) . Whether the tradition to call tails the party of a coin opposite to the party with the State Emblem remained still, regardless, this party is an obverse or a reverse.
So - on good luck - heads or tails?]