What happened in Novocherkassk? The general who did not shootC of what everything began? the USSR began with
In 1961 mass purchases of grain in Canada.
At the beginning of summer 62 - go scarce fat and meat rose in price approximately for a third of the price.
On June 1, 1962 for overcoming of temporary shortage of food in the USSR raised prices of milk and meat by a third. Disorders were in many cities, but in Novocherkassk the food programme of party coincided with decrease of salaries at the largest electric locomotive plant.
So coincided that in the same day workers learned about price increase - and the management of Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant reported to workers about decrease on a third of quotations. It, of course, was only the coincidence sufficient, however, to put plant on a strike side. The phrase thrown by the plant manager served as a detonator. People demanded from the administration of the answer to the question “ On what to us to live further? “. Soon there was a plant manager B. N. Kurochkin. Having noticed the dealer pies not far, he tore off one of speakers and declared: “ There is not enough money for meat - guzzle pies with a liver “. The casual, of course, phrase, but to set fire to gunpowder, is enough one spark.
What was then?
Further the plant rose. The strike began, the telegram about anti-Soviet mutiny departed to Moscow. In the morning the following information was reported on Khrushchev:
“ Undesirable disorders continue to take place in mountains. Novocherkassk at elektrovozny plant. Approximately to three o`clock in the morning after introduction of military units the crowd numbering by then about four thousand people managed to be forced out from the territory of plant and gradually it dissipated. The plant was taken under military protection, in the city the curfew is established, twenty two instigators were detained “.
In a night all vital city facilities (mail, telegraph, a broadcasting center, the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People`s Deputies and the City town committee of party, department of militia, KGB and the State bank) were taken under protection, and from the State Bank all money and values were taken out.
All divisions of Novocherkassk garrison were alarmed and alerted full. And the square in front of a city administration was already filled by people who demanded that to them somebody came for conversation, but nobody appeared.
As it was suppressed “ mutiny “
the Crowd did not want to disperse, submachine gunners gave several turns in air, but touched several people, including boys watching events from trees.
Eyewitnesses remember: the first machine gun fire over crowd got to trees, and on them children sat - they got there better to see. Their bodies did not find.
Nikolay Stepanov, participant of events of 1962: “ Two girls, and still someone lay who - I do not know. I speak - look, what is it? Children were done some shooting! “
Panic began. (Pavel Aptekar e “ Vedomostiv “ 08. 06. 2007, No. 104)
Not one witness told that the officer who received command to open fire refused to give this team to the soldiers and before a system was shot. But dagger fire everything is was discovered. In the beginning up, on trees, on children. The killed wounded, frightened fell down. The party, the state, army so eradicated sedition. The party so approved unity of party and the people. Then fire was postponed for weight. It is not fire single shots from three-rulers, it is fire from rapid-fire submachine guns. Told. The elderly man runs past a concrete flower vase on a curbstone. The bullet got into the head, his brains razlyapatsya instantly on a vase. Mother in shop carries the chest killed child. The beautician is killed on a workplace. The little girl in a blood pool lies. The crazy major got up in this pool. Speak to it: “ Look, the swine where you stand! “ The Major starts up a bullet to himself in the head here. A lot of things were told.
One of later the condemned participants of these events wounded by a srikoshechenny bullet in a shovel in camp told that corpses of the dead in the cellar a number of the being State Bank forced to store them. Corpses were put stacks, and they still were in agony. Who knows, perhaps among them were also such who could be rescued.
By order of the regional administration, corpses collected, took away and dumped in some thrown mine, washed away blood from the area fire engines.
(© B “ Human rights setv “ 1996 - 2007) Is later than
in Novocherkassk there passed the court over “ instigators of disorders “. They were revealed, thanks to agents who specially took the picture indignant crowds. Those who in these pictures went in the forefront and behaved most actively were subpoenaed. People were arrested at night that there were less witnesses, without explaining anything to anybody. It brought charges of gangsterism, mass riots and attempt of overthrow of the Soviet power, almost all participants found themselves guilty. Seven from “ instigators “ (Alexander Zaytsev, Andrey Korkach, Mikhail Kuznetsov, Boris Mokrousov, Sergey Sotnikov, Vladimir Cherepanov, Vladimir Shuvayev) were sentenced to death and shot, the others 105 received imprisonment terms from 10 to 15 years with serving in a colony strictly of the mode. Subsequently all of them were rehabilitated.
As covered up tracks
the Top management of the country most of all was afraid of publicity of the taken place events. All measures were taken in order that information did not filter anywhere, for this purpose checked all letters of citizens, and all who left Novocherkassk, in detail interrogated about purposes of visit and carried out “ heart-to-heart talk “ after which everyone understood that you should not expatiate on the events which took place in the city. Thus data on the Novocherkassk tragedy managed to be kept in deep secret up to the end 80 - x years.
The correspondent of NTV Roman Sobol writes:
“ KGB Archives on execution in Novocherkassk are still secret. Who gave orders, who shot at protesters from a roof of a city town committee of CPSU and how many people died - is unknown “.
Twenty-five-year-old Pyotr Siuda, in 1962 - the m participating in a mass meeting in Novocherkassk was sentenced to twelve years of camps. Having released in six years, he all life collected data on that tragedy and was killed on May 5, 1990. His death is connected with search of secret burials of the victims of Novocherkassk execution. At times it is necessary to pay expensive price for memory. ( Material is provided by the widow of P. Siuda condemned on Novocherkassk business E. Siuda ).
But there was one which did not shoot
But Novocherkassk gave one of the first known examples of the fact that honest (from the word “ honor “) the officer can (actually - has to!) to refuse performance of the criminal order.
When it became known in the morning that many thousands demonstration with red banners, flowers and Lenin`s portraits goes from plant to the center to the building of a city town committee of party, motor-shooters were given the order - not to allow pass of protesters on the bridge through the river Tuzlov. The deputy commander Severo - the Caucasian military district the general Matvei Kuzmich Shaposhnikov received the order to attack crowd tanks. “ I do not see before myself such opponent who should be attacked our " tanks; - the general answered.
The general M. K. Shaposhnikov arrived to plant around which troops already concentrated, and the power ordered: “ To discharge Automatic machines and carbines, to hand over ammunition under responsibility of commanders of companies “. The same treated also tank ammunition.
- For me, the military person when say that it is necessary to lift troops on fighting alarm, that is with the weapon and ammunition, became clear - it is not for disaster management.
When asked the general that would be if he obeyed to the order, and the tanks standing on the bridge through the river Tuzlov attacked crowd. He answered: “ Thousands " would Die;.
On it his military career ended. It did not get glory. That act (feat) of Matvei Shaposhnikov became known to the country only in quarter of the century from Yury Shchekochikhin`s article in “ Literaturke “ (on June 21, 1989).
The Hero of the Soviet Union the Great Patriotic War the lieutenant colonel Shaposhnikov met
as the chief of an operations section 37 - y a tank division (Hugo - the Western front). In July - October, 1942 the colonel Shaposhnikov - the chief of a staff of the 19th tank case. In the middle of Kursk fight he already ordered 178 - y armored brigade.
the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of January 10, 1944 for model performance of tasks of command and the shown courage and heroism in fights with German - fascist aggressors, to the colonel Shaposhnikov to Matvei Kuzmich gave the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union with delivery of the Order of Lenin and the medal “ Gold Star “ (No. 3195).
In April, 1944 Shaposhnikov appointed the commander 10 - go the tank case, in the Kremlin handed the Order of Lenin and the medal “ Gold Star “. On July 2, 1944 to it the rank " was given; the general - the major of tank troops “. The fighting way finished in the Austrian Alps, having met allies. On Victory Day parade on June 24, 1945 at Red Square the general - the major Shaposhnikov headed a summary battalion of tankmen 3 - go the Ukrainian front.
After a victory the general Shaposhnikov remained in Armed forces. In 1949 graduated from Military academy of the General Staff and it was sent to Group of the Soviet troops in Germany. Served as the chief of a staff, the deputy commander as tank army. Since 1955 the general - the lieutenant Shaposhnikov ordered five years 2 - y Guards tank army.
In 1960 - e years was the deputy commander Severo - the Caucasian military district. ( ALEXANDER CHERKASOV, “ Memorial “ )
As there lived the general who did not shoot
Later the general tried to make public information on the Novocherkassk tragedy. In 1966 the general - the lieutenant Shaposhnikov is dismissed. Against it criminal case on a charge of anti-Soviet promotion was brought, in 1967 - it is expelled from party. Actually it appeared in disgrace. It is rehabilitated on December 6, 1988. Lived in the city of Rostov-on-Don. Died on June 28, 1994.
For understanding of the past memory which does not remain in itself is necessary. But it is possible that memory of Novocherkassk defined a peaceful solution of events of the ninetieth. The witness of execution, one of boys from a city square of Novocherkassk, did not execute the criminal order at the White House in August, 1991 - go, - called him Alexander Lebed.]