What is a malignant tumor?Malignant tumors result from malignant transformation of normal cages which begin to breed uncontrolledly. Malignant transformation is caused by one or several mutations forcing cages to share beyond all bounds. If the immune system of an organism does not distinguish such transformation in time, the tumor begins to expand, and over time metastazirut. Metastasises can be formed in one and all bodies and fabrics. Most often metastasises are formed in bones, a liver, a brain and adrenal glands.
Uncontrollable cell fission can lead to a benign tumor also. Benign tumors differ in the fact that do not form metastasises, do not interfere in other fabrics and therefore are seldom life-threatening. However benign tumors often turn into malignant.
The final diagnosis of a malignant tumor is made after histologic research of a sample of fabric by the pathologist. After diagnostics expeditious treatment, chemotherapy or radiation therapy is appointed. In process of improvement of medical science treatment becomes more and more specific to each type of tumors.
Without treatment malignant tumors usually progress up to death. The majority of tumors will respond to treatment though results of treatment depend on a type of a tumor, its arrangement and a stage. Spontaneous treatment at cancer does not happen.
Malignant tumors affect people of all age, but arise at advanced age much more often. It is one of the main reasons for death in the developed countries. Emergence of many tumors is connected with action of factors of environment, such as alcohol, a tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, some viruses.
Tendency to the rapid uncontrollable growth having destructive character and leading to a sdavleniye and damage of surrounding normal fabrics is characteristic. Time of doubling of tumoral weight much less in comparison with benign tumors is also measured usually not for years, but months or weeks.
accented existence of the expressed general influence on an organism owing to development by a tumor of the toxins suppressing antineoplastic and general immunity, promoting development in patients of the general poisoning (“ intoxications “), physical exhaustion (“ adynamy “) depressions, an iskhudaniye up to a so-called kakheksiya.
existence in tumor cells of considerable number of genetic breakages which number increases together with age and mass of a tumor Is characteristic
; some of these breakages are necessary for actually carcinogenesis, some are necessary for an uskolzaniye from immunity or for acquisition of ability to a metastazirovaniye, others are casual and arise owing to the lowered resistance of tumor cells to the damaging influences.
There is an immaturity or degree of a maturity, low in comparison with benign tumors, of the cages making a tumor. And than degree of a maturity of cages - the zlokachestvenny a tumor is lower, the quicker grows and earlier metastazirut, but as a rule the more sensitively to beam and chemotherapy.
the Intensive stimulation of growth of blood system in a tumor leading to its filling by blood vessels Is characteristic
and it is frequent to hemorrhages in tumor fabric.
Symptoms vary depending on location of cancer. Pain usually arises only at late stages. At early stages cancer often does not cause any unpleasant feelings. Some often found symptoms include:
Local symptoms: unusual swelling or consolidation (often the earliest symptom); bleeding; inflammation; jaundice.
Symptoms of metastasises: increase in lymphatic glands; cough, it is possible with blood; increase in a liver; bone pain, fractures of bones; neurologic symptoms.
General symptoms: loss of weight, appetite loss, exhaustion, the increased sweating, anemia
Malignant tumors differ as cages from which they arise:
A carcinoma, or actually cancer - from epitelialny cages (for example, a prostate cancer, lungs, a mammary gland, a rectum).
the Melanoma - from melanotsit
Sarcoma - from connecting fabric, bones and muscles (mesenchyma)
the Leukosis - from stem kletkok of marrow
the Lymphoma - from lymphatic
tissue of Teratom - from germinal cages
the Glioma - from glial cells
of Horiokartsinom - from placenta fabric]