Rus Articles Journal

How invented the bicycle?

B 1817 the German inventor baron Karl Dreyz created the first scooter which was called by it by car for walking . The scooter had a wheel and a saddle. The scooter was called by name the inventor a section car, and this word is used in Russian to this day. In 1818 the patent for this invention was granted.

In 1839 - 1840 the invention was improved. The Scottish smith Kirkpatrik Macmillan added to him a pedal. The back wheel was attached in a pedal by metal cores, the pedal pushed a wheel, the cyclist was between a forward and back wheel and steered bicycle by means of a wheel which was in turn attached to a forward wheel.

Several years later the English engineer Thompson patented inflatable tires for the bicycle. However tires were technically imperfect and did not gain distribution at that time. Mass release of bicycles with pedals was begun in 1867. Pierre Micho also thought up the name " bicycle;.

In 70 - x years of the 19th century there were popular so-called " bicycles; a penny - farthing received the name thanks to harmony of wheels as the coin farthing was much less penny. On the plug of a forward bigger wheel there were pedals, and the saddle was from above from them.

The bicycle was rather dangerous of - for the fact that the center of gravity was displaced to the center. Alternative a penny - farthing there were three-wheeled scooters very widespread at that time.

The invention of a metal wheel with spokes is the following important step to evolutions of bicycles. This successful design was offered by the inventor Kauper in 1867, and only two years later bicycles had a frame. In the late seventies Englishman Lawson invented chain transfer.



of Rover
- Wanderer - first bicycle similar to modern bicycles. This bicycle was made by the English inventor John Kemp Starli in 1884. Only one year later mass release of these bicycles was adjusted. Rover possessed chain transfer, took wheels, identical by the size, a driver`s seat was between a forward and back wheel.

The bicycle became so popular in Europe that, for example, in Polish the word rover means the bicycle. The bicycle differed from the predecessor in safety and convenience. Production of bicycles developed into production of cars, the Rover concern which existed till 2005 and went bankrupt was created.

In 1888 Scot Boyd Danlop invented the rubber tires which were widely adopted. Unlike the patented rubber tires they were technically more perfect and more reliable. Before bicycles were often called kostotryask with rubber tires driving the bicycle became softer. It became much more convenient to go. The ninetieth years of the 19th century were designated the Golden Age of bicycles.

One year later pedal brakes and the mechanism of a free wheeling were invented. This mechanism allowed not to twist pedals when the bicycle goes. Approximately in the same time the emergency brake was invented, but widely it began to be used much later.

In 1878 the first folding bicycle was made. Aluminum bicycles were in the nineties invented.

The first rikambent, the bicycle allowing the cyclist to go lying or semi-lying, it was invented in 1895. In 9 years " concern; " Peugeot; began mass production of rikambent. And in 1915 for the Italian army began to release bicycles with a back and forward suspension bracket.

In the next decade ball-bearings appeared, they reduced friction between moving parts, conveyor methods of assembly, steel pipes, two - and three-speed wheel plugs, a foot brake and the switch of transfers of the chain drive. The first mechanisms of switching of speeds which arose at the beginning of the 20th century were imperfect. The back wheel was equipped with two asterisks - on one from each party. To switch speed, it was necessary to stop, remove a wheel and to turn it. At the same time the chain needed to be pulled and recorded. In 1903 the planetary mechanism of switching of speeds was invented, but it became popular only in the thirties the 20th centuries. The analog of today`s gearshift is from 1950, it was invented by the Italian bicycle racer and the producer of bicycles Tullio Campagnolo.

In 1974 began to make bicycles from the titan, year later - from a coal plastic. The cycle computer tracing the speed, time, loading was invented in 1983. In the nineties there were popular systems of index switching of speeds.

It is impossible to call popularity of bicycles in the 20th century stable. At the beginning of the century bicycles became less popular of - for developments of automotive industry and availability of cars. But in the late sixties bicycles became very fashionable thanks to promotion of a healthy lifestyle.]