How there is caries? Maybe we will try all - to prevent it?Caries - very widespread disease. It wins first place among chronic diseases in children`s age, and meets by 5 - 8 times more often than a disease on the second place - bronchial asthma. According to different authors from 80 to 90% of children with a dairy bite, about 80% of teenagers at the time of leaving school have carious cavities, and 95 - 98% of adults have the sealed-up teeth.
Statistical data show that in the countries of Africa and Asia caries is less widespread, than in the northern countries. In developing countries higher level of distribution of caries is also noted.
Now developing of caries of teeth is connected with local change of pH on a tooth surface under a dental plaque owing to the fermentation of carbohydrates which is carried out by microorganisms and by formations of organic acids.
By consideration of mechanisms of developing of caries of tooth the variety of various factors which interaction causes emergence of the center of demineralization attracts attention: oral cavity microorganisms, character pitaniya:kolichestvo of carbohydrates; a diet, quantity and quality of salivation - the remineralizing potential of saliva, buffer properties, nonspecific and specific factors of protection of saliva); shifts in a functional condition of an organism, amount of the fluorine coming to an organism, influence of environment etc. However major factors for developing of caries the following: a kareisvospriimchivost of a tooth surface, kariyesogenny bacteria, the fermented carbohydrates and time.
Tooth enamel - the most solid fabric of a human body. On hardness it concedes to diamond only a little. It for 96% consists of minerals, generally of hydroxyapatites which are very susceptible to acids therefore destruction of enamel begins already at pH 4. 5. The Kariyesvospriimchivost of a tooth surface depends from a set of factors:
Property of an anatomic surface of tooth: in natural fissures and in intervals between teeth there are favorable conditions for long-term fixing of a dental plaque.
tooth enamel Saturation fluorine: the ftorapatita formed as a result of it are steadier against effect of acids.
Hygiene of an oral cavity: timely removal of a dental plaque prevents further development of caries.
diet Factor: the food soft, rich with carbohydrates promotes formation of a dental plaque. The amount of vitamins and minerals also influences the general condition of an organism and especially saliva.
Quality and amount of saliva: The small amount of viscous saliva promotes an attachment of bacteria to “ to a pellikula “ and formation of a dental plaque (see a tooth plaque). Buffer properties of saliva (which neutralize acids) and amount of immunoglobulins and other factors of protection in saliva have very important influence on a kariyesrezistentnost of enamel.
General condition of an organism.
In an oral cavity a set of bacteria are found, but in the course of formation of a dental plaque acid-forming streptococci and lactobacilli participate in the basic.
Already in a few minutes after reception of carbohydrates, especially sucrose, reduction of pH with 6 to 4 is noted. In a dental plaque except lactic acid which is directly formed at fermentation of carbohydrates also other organic acids are found ant, oil, propionic.
The acids formed at fermentation of carbohydrates lead to destruction of a surface of enamel. Existence and activity of fermentation in a raid depends on quantity and quality of available carbohydrates. Most intensively there is a sucrose fermentation, less - glucose and fructose. Mannitol, sorbite and xylitol also get into a tooth plaque, however owing to small activity of the enzyme turning them into fructose, they are harmless. Starch is also not kariyesogenny substance as its molecules do not get into a dental plaque.
Frequency with which tooth is exposed to kariyesogenny influence of acids influences probability of developing of caries. After each meal which contains sugar microorganisms begin to produce acids which destroy enamel. Over time these acids are neutralized by buffer properties of saliva and partially demineralized enamel. After every period of impact of acids on tooth enamel inorganic mineral components of tooth enamel are dissolved and can remain dissolved 2 hours. If to accept carbohydrates periodically during the day, then pH will be low for a long time, buffer properties of saliva do not manage to restore pH and there is a probability of irreversible destruction of a surface of enamel.
Speed of carious process depends on many factors, the begun process can be slowed down in case of use of fluorine, but on average caries of contact surfaces at second teeth progresses slowly and the cavity can be formed within 4 years. As the fang is covered with softer fabric - cement, caries of a root develops in 2. The 5th time quicker, than in the field of enamel.
Caries is externally shown by emergence of a white spot on tooth enamel. and comes to an end with total loss of the last... and it still at best...
Whether everything so is better to replace - “ white death “ in the daily food allowance on fresh vegetables and fruit?
Also do not forget to buy regularly to yourself toothpaste with fluorine!]