Genogeografiya: how to find the roots?One of the most authoritative geneticists of the planet, the president of the Estonian Academy of Sciences Richard Willems, considers: already now it is possible to achieve much more exact results - it is necessary to study only carefully already available DNA samples. I do not know, what is the time will leave on that these analyses really precisely helped to find out the past, but the order is estimated for years, but not decades. Now on the first place on importance - the analysis of the collected data. Y charm - DNA - on it nearly 500 markers, that is it is possible to give very exact estimates. Here, for example, for Slavs; now they are in one heap gaplogroup R1a, and a scientific task - to find new markers which will separate Ukraine from Russia, the North Caucasus from India etc. - the academician claims.
The Russian geneticists Oleg and Elena Balanovskiye (the candidate and the Dr.Sci.Biol.) speak: till that time, when Y - DNA will play there were only several years. Balanovskiye are responsible in the National Geographic project for territories of the former USSR. In five years we have to collect 10 000 analyses, but for the first year we strongly exceeded norm and collected in the Caucasus, the Urals, Altai, Pamir and in Afghanistan 4000 samples. In the coming year in Siberia so we will not hurry - Oleg tells.
Work really does not suffer vanity - the mistake can reject big party of tests for analyses. At first choose the people, then among them there are those populations which are key for it. These are consultations with ethnographers, linguists, local anthropologists. We have to take samples at those who will yield the most representative result. As a rule, the cities which from the point of view of the geneticist are a copper where all genes are mixed are excluded from research. Therefore the main points of our routes - the remote settlements with indigenous people - the geneticist says. One of big problems - how to store samples: in genogeografichesky expeditions take away not saliva, but blood (in it there is more genetic material), and it needs to be frozen urgently.
One more complexity - people usually willingly go to make tests, but we can examine not all: we should select long because in villages there are a lot of relatives. We take only men. Why? Yes because we receive at once and MTDNK and Y - a chromosome. It is necessary to give lectures, to tell about the project purposes, to fill in questionnaires so time for talk leaves much more, than on collecting blood. We do not tell the word gene and gene pool, and we explain that we will send them family trees to 2000 generations " down; - Balanovsky tells...
It is difficult to overestimate value of information which genogeograf can give to physicians. The knowledge of genetic features of ethnic groups is necessary for development of effective prevention of diseases - the Dr.Sci.Biol. Elza Husnutdinova says.
For example, it is known that among Russians Volgo is the Ural region especially often the fenilketonuriya (the hereditary metabolic disorder leading to weak-mindedness) meets, and Jews have Ashkenazi in the course Blum`s syndrome connected with different types of cancer. However, other branches of genetics successfully go in for medicine, and a genogeografiya nevertheless historical science, her numerous admirers are sure. But why not to share data of analyses with colleagues, time at their genogeograf most of all?
The only Russian who made the family genetic portrait - 30 - the summer Muscovite Roman Sychev. He read about the National Genographic project, handed over the saliva and organized Family club of Sychev (Y - DNA the project) - the Internet - a portal where each Sychev on the planet is offered to carry out the analysis of DNA and to occupy (or not to take) the place in a big family with quite widespread surname.
When I made tests, it turned out that washing a gaplogroup of J2e1 (mainly Jews and Arabs from Palestine and Syria belong to it. - Newsweek) arose during a neolytic era in the Middle East and then extended to the Southern Balkans and to the Region of Mediterranean. Representatives of a gaplogruppa of J2 invented agriculture and the first began to cultivate animals. I, for example, have three very close genetic coincidence to people, whose roots ukhodyatv Italy, Germany and England. For example, with the person from Italy we are divided by 800-850 years with an accuracy of 95%. Of course, the success of my project depends on the number of participants, this small scientific research. So far people still misunderstand all this. Many even just do not know a name of the grandfather or the great-grandfather. And in other countries hundreds of such " projects; - Roman tells.
Abroad in genogeografichesky community monthly there are tremendous events. One of the loudest stories of year before last happened in the USA when 15 - the summer teenager tracked down the father, the anonymous donor of sperm, having handed over a sample to DNA. Having received results, he soon found on one of genealogical for a web - the websites identical Y - a chromosome - the father was the fan of new science too.
Bennet Greenspan from FamilyTreeDNA told one more - tragic - history: Let`s call it St. Petersburg. He from Poland, but now lives in the USA. The uncle told it that his grandfather with the grandmother actually not the family, they adopted his mother during World War II. In 1942 they with the grandmother went on Razvadovo`s station, the woman with the child approached them and asked, Poles they or Jews. Having heard the answer that Poles, she suggested to adopt the child. The husband tried to ask the woman and to learn about her more, but she answered: Both for me, and for the girl it is better if you know nothing . Ded Pitera got the false birth certificate, and in several days cars with Jews - and with the girl`s mother - sent to a concentration camp in Auschwitz.
After this story Peter decided to hand over DNA sample. On the maternal line Jews were found in it.
Articles on the same subject:
WHY we are SUCH SMIRNOV?
GENOGEOGRAFIYa - THAT FOR SCIENCE?
GENOGEOGRAFIYa: ALL PEOPLE are BROTHERS?
GENOGEOGRAFIYa: STALIN is PRZHEVALSKY`S SON?
Full text of article: Stepan Kravchenko, Nikita Maximov
Zri in the roots ]