Rus Articles Journal

Genogeografiya - that for science?

the Soviet geneticist Alexander Serebrovsky who gave a genogeografiya its name said that it is rather historical, but not biological science. However, without biology she would never be born. Studying of the sites of a genome which underwent mutations during existence of mankind is its cornerstone.

Scientists paid the main attention to two chains with the inherited information: Y - DNA from a kernel of a cage which only men have and is transferred strictly on the man`s line, and MTDNK (mitochondrial DNA) which contains out of a kernel in special educations - the mitochondrions developing energy for a cage. MTDNK is both at women, and at men, but it is transferred only on the female line.

Among thousands of pieces of DNA of genetics revealed (and continue to reveal) sites - them call markers, - undergone at different populations of people to mutations in different historical times. It like typographical errors on which it is possible to reveal the initial author of the ancient record - the Dr.Sci.Biol. Elena Balanovskaya explains.

Further scientists calculated the speed of mutations of markers and the place on Earth where they occurred. And at this stage of development of science already everyone - or almost everyone - can find the general ancestor with other person at a depth of tens, one hundred and even thousands of generations and establish the origin. Or to define the nationality as it is accepted to speak now, that is during the era preceding a universal victory of a genogeografiya which will change understanding about races.

So geneticists received two thin beam highlighting the genealogical past of each person on thousands of years deep into. One lights ancestors strictly on the female line: mother, the grandmother, the great-grandmother etc. to Eve ; another - in the same way - on man`s, to Adam .

About Adam and Eve - it is not a figure of speech: scientists found out that the primogenitor of all men on the planet, Adam (there were also others, but its genes were the most resistant), lived in Africa 90 000-130 000 years ago. Eve - that whose genes are carried in itself by all population of the planet, - a vein on the Dark continent 150 000 years ago. So, judging by genetic Bible Adam and Eve never met.

The first Homo sapiens left Africa and dispersed on the world, and their DNA mutated from internal and external factors from time to time, and mutations extended to big groups of people. Each piece of this big way on which the migrating people remained genetically stable call gaplogruppy. Their number constantly grew, gaplogruppa were split up - in populations there were splits. By our time scientists contain nearly 170 gaplogroup. But even now many, at first sight absolutely different, the people - genetic brothers. Or sisters - as Sami in Scandinavia and on our Kola Peninsula and the North African berbers. Recent research showed that on the maternal line these people belonged to one gaplogruppa 9000 years ago. Now the part of the former uniform population goes by horses across the northern Sahara, and another - grazes deer in the Polar region.

The world card gaplogroup is similar to the atlas of highways. Here, for example highway with a mutation of M9 was brisk 40000-50000 years ago: from it moved down most of Europeans, many people of India and practically all Asians. Having passed then to Siberia, the part of them received M207 mutation, having passed through the Urals - M173, and on the way to the Black Sea - M17. Now presence at the man of markers with these mutations says that he belongs to one of the most widespread in Eastern and Central Europe to R1a gaplogruppa...

The firms doing geographical analyses, began to appear one by one only a few years ago. These are mainly American and British companies which send in any point of the world a set with a brush and a test tube. Everything is elementary: a brush it is necessary to rub cheek inside, the saliva containing genetic material will gather for it. Then the tip of a brush breaks off in a test tube - and test is ready. The main thing - not to forget to rinse a mouth before procedure, it is written in the enclosed instruction.

Having received test, geneticists analyze it and tell the customer result: such - markers are found in you that allows to define such - to a gaplogroup. And to find the existing and existing relatives, it needs to be compared to results of other tests.

For this purpose several databases on the Internet were created. There it is possible to hammer numbers of the markers, to look at the list of close and distant relatives (if those are found) and more or less precisely to define the gaplogruppa. The leader in this area - the American FamilyTreeDNA... Now in its base already 80 000 people...

Is in classifications and obvious black holes - people with a rare set of mutations sometimes get to them. The Newsweek editor Dmitry Kuznets, for example, only of all examinees, could not define an origin of the father at all. Everything that he knew about a family tree on the man`s line, is that ancestors lived in Ukraine around Nikolaev., It seems, considered themselves as Ukrainians though suspected that they have impurity of the Turkish blood from some merchant. The genetics did not clear a situation: scientists could not carry accurately Kuznets to one gaplogruppa on Y - DNA.

But on the maternal line of the editor waited for a surprise: MTDNK his mothers carried to group N - it is the all-European gaplogruppa most of all widespread in Spain. But it, it seems, has no relation to Jews. Meanwhile on the maternal line at Kuznets all relatives - Jews. Most likely in the Middle Ages, before exile of Jews from Spain, my prapra the great-grandmother, the Spaniard, married the Jew and accepted Judaism, and its non Jewish MTDNK reached my mother - Kuznets assumes. The all-European maternal gaplogruppa of H was also found in the singer Zemfira Ramazanova. The list of her relatives in base made nearly 800 people. Your ways, My God are wonderful!

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Full text of article: Stepan Kravchenko, Nikita Maximov

Zri in the roots ]