What is the fermentation or Where barmy fungi grow?For a long time people noticed that any berry, grape or other juice which is squeezed out of fruit and left in the vessel even densely corked soon begins to boil, foam as if and turns into the intoxicating   drink; - wine. This transformation was also called fermentation. Long time was not known why it occurs. Only in 60 - x years of the 19th century the French scientist Louis Pasteur studied this question and found out that fermentation of everyone sweet, i.e. containing sugary substances, liquid happens because that in it there settle, breed and live special lowest organisms which were called yeast, or barmy fungi. Barmy fungi represent the roundish or extended little bodies which are so small that they can be considered only in a microscope. By the form yeast represents serovato - the yellow weight which settles at the bottom of a bottle if in it to allow to stand to fruit juice for some time.
Barmy fungi possess ability under favorable conditions very quickly to breed so at the plants making yeast from one such fungus during even 1 - 2 days receive tens and hundreds of poods of the pressed yeast. If such little body gets to the fruit juice having though there is a little sugar, then begins to breed now and ferments it. Blagor to the fact that these fungi are extremely small when drying they do not lose the viability and, becoming very easy, everywhere are in the air. Therefore if to leave juice on air, then barmy fungi will surely get to it. They can be killed only at juice boiling, and in the ware which is strong corked.
Having got to sugary juice, barmy fungi begin to breed very quickly if conditions favor to it. These fungi troyako breed: budding, disputes and, more rare, division. The main, most important conditions necessary for reproduction and life of barmy fungi, are: 1) enough food for construction of a little body of barmy fungi; 2) warmly; 3) an opportunity to extract anyway the oxygen necessary for existence of fungi.
Food of barmy fungi are mainly proteinaceous (nitrogenous) and mineral substances and only in is insignificant small quantity sugary. The albumens (nitrogenous) absorbed by little bodies of barmy fungi collect, as if holding apart them from within, and it cause growth and gemmation. At a lack of albumens yeast does not breed and temporarily fades. From mineral substances are most necessary for them phosphoric acid, potassium, is less - magnesia and even less - lime. Sugar for yeast is necessary in very small degree. It is necessary for life of barmy fungi warmly.
Fungi maintain very low temperatures and even when freezing do not die, and only fade. In the best way they feel at average temperatures. Barmy fungi live only at a temperature not below 1 ° With and not higher than 47 ° C. At lower temperature fungi fade, and at high (80 - 100 ° C) perish. Necessary for life warmly barmy fungi get by means of combustion of carbohydrates (breath).
Breath of barmy fungi is especially important for winemaking. It is necessary for activity of fungi warmly which is allocated as a result of combustion of carbohydrates (sugar, etc.) . Unlike more perfect organisms - person and animals - barmy fungi burn carbohydrates not up to the end and turn them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
There are many different types of fungi, bacteria and other organisms which as if continue unfinished work of yeast of spirit fermentation. Bacteria and fungi of acetic fermentation are that, for example. which burn (again - partially) the formed alcohol and turn it into acetic acid, allocating at the same time a quantity of calories of heat and, therefore, continuing breath process (combustion of sugar) is farther. There are organisms which decompose acetic acid further until eventually everything does not turn into carbon dioxide and water, i.e. so far process of combustion of sugar will not be finished.
Other barmy fungi, bacteria and other lowest organisms, turn sugar into dairy, oil acids, but too without burning it up to the end. At the same time some barmy fungi of that group which continues work of spirit yeast cannot live without oxygen access.
So, barmy fungi turn the sugar which is contained in fruit juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This transformation is also called spirit fermentation. Except spirit in fruit juice there can be also a fermentation of other character. So, if the bacteria and fungi turning sugar into acetic acid get to juice, then there is a fermentation acetic.
Lactic fermentation at which lactic acid is formed, happens at a zakvashivaniye of forages, cabbage, at kvass making, etc. Butyrate fermentation at which oleic acid is formed, causes rancidity of butter, etc.
In winemaking is important fermentation spirit. Nevertheless other types it by production of wine are absolutely undesirable because they cause diseases and damage of drink.