Rus Articles Journal

What is “generations of the COMPUTER“? Generation 2 and following. What is is “Moore`s law“?

“If the aircraft industry in the last 25 years developed as promptly as the industry of computer aids, then now the Boeing 767 plane would cost 500 dollars and made flight of the globe in 20 minutes, spending at the same time five gallons of fuel. The provided figures very precisely reflect depreciation, growth of speed and increase of profitability of the COMPUTER“. Scientific American 1983, No. 8

the Next generations of the COMPUTER replaced each other quickly enough. The second generation belongs to the end 50kh years - 60 m, the third - it too 60e years, the fourth began right at the beginning 70kh years.

Second generation - The COMPUTERS based on transistors.

When instead of lamps transistors came, it pushed all technologies connected with the COMPUTER at once. Sharply consumption of electricity decreased, the COMPUTERS sizes sharply decreased, speed increased. COMPUTERS from the monsters occupying the whole floors of buildings turned at first into devices, the size about a case, then into the suitcase which is placed on a table, then in a small box, then became even less. And bugs, instead of the cockroaches who were burning down on contacts, turned into mistakes in the software.

In process of improvement of technology computers turned from a set of the wires of the cases consisting of the wires of the shelves consisting of the payments connected among themselves by wires &ndash connected among themselves by bunches connected among themselves by bunches; in a set of the payments connected among themselves by wires. Devices of external memory and input-output changed very quickly too. Instead of magnetic drums magnetic disks whose capacity began to increase promptly came. From several megabytes to tens of megabytes (presently - already to terabyte).

From the COMPUTER of the second generation mainframes of IBM are well-known, the DEC firm produced the first PDP model - 1. At us, in the USSR, BESM - 6 about which already spoke was let out.

Third generation of the &ndash COMPUTER; The COMPUTER on integrated circuits.

the Integrated circuits consisting of hundreds of millions of transistors allowed to place the processor already on only one payment. IBM produced models 360 and 370, and in the USSR began to release a series of the EU EVS (Uniform System), in fact - IBM which is torn off from models - 360. Magnetic disks grew in capacity, decreasing in sizes, magnetic tapes served as a well-tried remedy of an archiving of data. There were first monitors which replaced the electric pishmashinka serving before as terminals of operators. Data input was made on punched cards, punched tapes and magnetic tapes.

Printers were multiplied, there were mosaic printers and machine halls were filled with chirring of the needles beating a copy tape. Cars still were big. but their application everything extended.

Fourth generation of the COMPUTER. ENCORE

Big integrated circuits and superbig - SBIS, sometimes allocate the last in the 5th generation of the COMPUTER. Creation of the big integrated circuits (BIC) allowed to place the COMPUTER processor in one chip. It allowed to increase sharply speed and to reduce prime cost of one COMPUTER. In process of improvement of technology, gradually the COMPUTERS elements decreased. At last time when the processor was placed on one chip came. So there were microprocessors which made possible emergence of Personal Computers. or personal computer. Speed sharply increased, computers became less and cheaper.

The ENCORE turned both the production technology of computers and the market of computers. Prime cost decreased so that the computer became on a pocket to the ordinary inhabitant. Mass production sharply reduced prime cost. The new market, the new horizons of consumption was so created. And where there is a demand - there is also an offer.

In creation of the &ndash personal computer; Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak`s huge merit. As they say - capitalism in pure form, demand gives rise to the offer. but far more abruptly - when at first the offer which is necessary on heart to very much is thought out, generating huge demand for a new product. In 1976 the first serial Apple personal computer was born.

However, in the near future superiority of corporations over enthusiasts « was shown; sarayny “ productions. The IBM firm with its IBM PC (Personal Computer) became “fashion-maker“ in the PC market. Practically - this standard remained till our time though the power of computers grew in thousands of times, and the operating system and program covers changed to unrecognizability. And it thus. that IBM &ndash firm; for a long time not the fashion-maker in the market of the COMPUTER. It was overtaken very long time ago and selected considerable part of the market young and aggressive who already too were overtaken - younger.

Law Moura.

In the mid-sixties Gordon Moore (who became subsequently to one of founders of the Intel company) it is casual (it prepared performance and estimated figures how many was transistors in new chips at that time, how many in a year before, for two, for four...) found out strange regularity that the quantity of elements of chips of new models doubles approximately each 2 years.

You, of course, remember a parable the Indian wise man, sold a secret of chess and game in chess to a certain rajah for &ndash wheat; on one cage it was necessary to put one grain, on everyone the subsequent - it is twice more - and so on each of 64 cages of chess. You, of course, remember, than the parable ended.

And so - from the moment of a law formulation Moura already there passed 40 years, or - twenty times on two! And the law remains still. When technologies are incapable owing to the physical reasons to support reduction of the size of the &ndash elements; there is a change of technologies.

The Moore who so fairly joked in 1965 already several times in serious scientific articles predicted crash of the law Moura. Last time it was in 2007. But the law is still observed.