Rus Articles Journal

What is “generations of the COMPUTER“? Generation 1. Lamp.

During our era of a mnogoprotsessornost and the distributed calculations were forgotten once the division of computers into generations seeming important already a little. First generation - these are lamp computers, the second - transistor, the third - computers on integrated circuits, and the fourth - The COMPUTER with use of microprocessors.

At the beginning there were ferrite rings and electron tubes.

Memory of direct access, or RAM which in girlhood was called the RAM (the operational memory device, or simply “ memory “) consisted of ferrite ringlets. Each ringlet was stitched by several windings. On one there was recording current, on another - reading current. on the third - restoration current. Ferrite (ferromagnetic) of which the ringlet consisted was given one or the other stable states which were treated how 0 or 1. Memory gathered cubes. One cube of memory usually consisted of one - two kilowords. However, words then measured not by bytes, but categories. In BESM - the 6th length of the word made 48 categories, or if on - present - bits.

Tens of thousands of electron tubes, the floor, and even several floors of the building filled by the cases with the equipment consuming power over one hundred kilowatts. And work in the continuous mode. If the COMPUTER was switched-off, then start was required not only to give food - for synchronization of elements long work of big team of experts was required. And, time started, the COMPUTER worked and worked. consuming hundreds of kilowatts of hours of electricity, storing data in the COMPUTER on magnetic drums and entering into the COMPUTER data from keyboards, toggle-switch panels and from punched cards and punched tapes, giving results of calculations on the printer, on the same punched tape, or temporarily keeping them on magnetic drums.

Then there was a term “ bug “ meaning presently a mistake in software. When engineers of those old times conducted the next start of the COMPUTER, in the magazine not working capacity reasons found at adjustment were noted. The COMPUTER consisted of a huge number of the payments connected by wires and ate a lot of electricity. Electron tubes demanded solid current for heating. And if the cockroach got to contact in such time. it just burned down. And, having become a piece of coal, quite could short-circuit itself some part of the scheme COMPUTER. Here so the inscriptions &ndash were also published in the magazine; “ the bug » is found;. Over time. when computers changed also cockroaches in them ceased to burn, search of bugs turned into just search of malfunctions.

Over time cars became less, they already occupied only part of the machine hall and began to consume not hundreds of kilowatts, but only several kilowatt.

And given them already brought not only on perfonositel, but also on magnetic tapes. And began to store them not only on cubes of ferrite rings, but also on magnetic drums. And then - and on magnetic disks. The Soviet MESM (small electronically - a calculating machine) created in 1950 contained 6000 electron tubes and consumed 15 kW. At the same time carried out about 3000 operations per second.

The IBM firm prepared in 1954 for serial release of the IBM 650 COMPUTER. Gross weight with the &ndash power supply unit; over 2 tons. It was placed in two cases of 1 in size. 5*0. 9*1. 8th meter. Cost half a million dollars of that time. Memory on the magnetic &ndash reel; 2000 words on 10 categories. In total sold over 2000 such cars. In 1956 the same IBM firm began to sell the first magnetic disk. Memory size - to 5 MB, the price - 50. 000 dollars.

In the USSR the best COMPUTER 2 - go generations - BESM - 6. Its speed made to 1. 000. 000 operations per second. 367 such cars were released. However, it would not be absolutely correct to consider only it the COMPUTER of the second generation. In the beginning it was let out on lamps, then passed to semiconductors, having kept the organization and the general scheme. There was even a version of BESM - 6, let out for the project Elbrus - already on integrated circuits. And an input equipment / conclusion at it changed - from typewriters and input from punched cards - to monitors. input from punched tapes and magnetic tapes. For data storage in the car magnetic drums and magnetic disks were used.

Actually - on it the first generation of the COMPUTER also ended - instead of lamps transistors came.

Though made lamp COMPUTERS to 70kh years. The question was not in the present of a product, and in its usefulness for the consumer.

Especially - the room where the lamp COMPUTER was placed, could be not heated. The switched-on COMPUTER transferred almost all consumed energy to heat.