Rus Articles Journal

What is “generations of the COMPUTER“? Generation 0. Analog calculators.

Mankind began to need carrying out mass of calculations. Development of sciences, progress in construction - everywhere numerous calculations were necessary. There were not enough mechanical arithmometers and slide rules any more. Scientists in all invented electromechanical calculators whose basis were electric relays.

In Germany in 1936 the young engineer Conrad Tsuze began to build the calculator series Z which had memory and a limited possibility of programming. In total by 1941 three Z1, Z2, Z3 versions were made.

The first of them became on the basis of binary logic and was generally mechanical. Input of teams in it was made from the keyboard, a conclusion was bulbs on the small panel. It worked unreliably from - for insufficient the accuracy of performance of separate parts. But, as the model was completely experimental and it was built on the money, and mounted on a dining table in a drawing room of the house of parents - its inaccuracy had no special value.

The second model worked at the relay. As also it and all its drawings died when bombings allies - about its properties it is not known.

And here the Z3 model made on the relay had the operating program and in many respects anticipated future COMPUTERS. It had not only integer arithmetics, but also operations with a floating comma. Programs for the computer were stored on a punched tape. At the same time in the computer there was the general memory both for the program and for data.

War suspended works to Tsuza. But after war, in 1950 already new version of the &ndash device was ready; Z4. At that time it was the first working computer (if to consider - in Western Europe). Moreover the author developed for him the first-ever language of high level called by it Plankalkyul (Plankalkul (German) - calculation of plans). This computer till 1955 in ETH Zurich (technical college), and then (worked up to 1960) at the French aerodynamic institute in Basel.

To Tsuza founded the company making computers. Its Z22 already had memory on magnetic carriers.

On the other side of La - Mansha , in England were made too, in the conditions of the most strict privacy, electromechanical, and then and electronic calculators. With their help the English mathematics broke a code German “ Enigma “ deciphering messages from the German submarines in Atlantic. Professor Max Newman and group of engineers created MKI, or the Colossus. Input of information was conducted with a punched tape, the majority of elements were on lamps. Owing to ultrahigh privacy of the project, after its termination, cars on Winston Churchill`s order were disassembled on small components - that from them it was impossible to restore the superconfidential equipment.

At this time over the ocean, in America.

B 1937 construction of computers joined also Americans, in Bell Labs in November, 1937 Dzhorzh Stibits finished creation of the Model K computer on the basis of the relay. Next year researches were continued and on January 8, 1940 Complex Number Calculator allowing to work with complex numbers was ready. On September 11, 1940 on demonstration of operation of the device in Dartmouth College the remote, by teletype, control of the computer was realized.

In 1939 the IBM firm began work on the electromechanical Harvard Mark I computer. His people who were under the strongest influence of the Babbage`s machine created. Therefore during the work decimal arithmetics was used. what strongly complicated the car. The car was programmed by means of a punched tape and had a little in parallel the working computing blocks. Electric relays formed a basis of blocks. Began work of Mark I in 1944. It was placed in Harvard.

In 1945 ENIAK was started. Made it for performance of ballistic calculations. It was the first purely electronic computer. Thanks to it it worked 1000 times faster, than modern to it computers at the relay. Unfortunately, “ » program; it rigidly was defined by a condition of connecting cables and switches. ENIAK intended for the solution only of one task and was not subject to reprogramming. In 1948 the computer was modified - also had an opportunity to carry out the program which is written down in special memory.

From now on all computers became digital. Time of the first generation of computers came.