Rus Articles Journal

What is “generations of the COMPUTER“? Generation “-1“. Mechanical ancestors of computers.

at the USSR our scientists, the most scientific scientists in the world, thought up classification of generations of the COMPUTER. There was it not for long and very violently because constantly there were violations which at once appeared confirming rules. In total scientists counted 5 generations of the &ndash COMPUTER; from lamp COMPUTERS beginning.

As it is known. &ndash COMPUTER; it “ electronic » computer;. And machines for calculations were constructed long before the first COMPUTERS. Very long considered that the very first computer was created by Charlz Babbage in 1833. He called it “ by the analytical » car;. In general... it up to the end did not complete it. Completely and finally he made only “ differential » car; purely mechanical, intended for the help in calculations of astronomical and other tables. Conceived by it “ analytical » car; was not the simple adder any more (ten turns of a wheel of a number of units one movement of a wheel of a number of tens &ndash causes; and so on), it in principle the author consisted of

- “warehouse“, the device intended for for storage of numbers (the RAM, if our way);

- “mills“, the device performing arithmetic operations (the processor on - modern);

- input equipment and conclusion - so it is called and today, only their options many hundreds are thought up, probably.

The original author of mechanical VM had adherents among whom - first-ever programmer. The daughter of lord Byron, lady Hell of Augustus Lovelace (on the husband). In private life it was happy, unlike Babbage who lowered considerable part of the state on creation of the car, but did not manage to complete the car (the processor of mechanical VM his son managed to complete). Lady Hell of Augustus in 19 years married lord King who became subsequently the count Lovelace. Spouses conducted a social life, Lady Ada gave rise to the column of the son and the daughter. And, between times - was fond of ideas and the Babbage`s machine. The spouse supported her by a hobby. The lady wrote three programs. The very first programs in the world. She invented concept of cells of memory, cycles and a recursion. Secular society of Great Britain indulgently treated a hobby of the daughter of the great poet.

Cars of that time did not go to the &ndash series; the need in calculations was too small, and they came out too expensive.

In the 19th century people had enough mechanical arithmometers. Meanwhile in 1900 archeologists found among fragments sunk in 100 years BC. vessels a certain mechanism which was considered then “ strange artifact “. And only in the fifties the 20th century scientists paid a close attention to it - also understood that found the very first mechanical calculator.

Several experts analyzed found and came to a conclusion that “ it “ - the mechanical calculator for carrying out astrological calculations calculating phases of the Sun, the Moon - and modeling the movement of all then known planets - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.

Many centuries prior to our time existed scientific, capable to make mechanical calculators. Here only nobody needed it - so, an entertainment for mind.

There passed centuries. Again it was required to consider to people much and precisely. In the 17th century several calculators were invented. Leibniz in 1672 created the first arithmometer. It was expensive and difficult - therefore did not gain distribution.

In the 19th century people created arithmometers - and they were already produced serially. Need of work of a set of calculations forced to make calculating mechanical devices. At last in 1919 production of the arithmometer performing already all 4 arithmetic operations began. It became possible quickly, in one movement of a hand to make between multidigit decimal numbers of operation of addition, denial, multiplication and division. Further mechanical calculators could not improve.

In view of growth of needs for calculations, scientists continued to invent, it was talked already of analog calculators in whom not gear wheels, but electric relays worked any more. Before World War II in England and in Germany scientists built the first analog computers.