Pages of the Russian history. When and where in the Soviet province there was the second after Moscow planetarium and what it differed from capital in?the Planetarium in the city of Donskoy of Tula region appeared in a decade after Moscow, and citizens were proud of it not without the bases: if for capital “firmament“ the country bought the tseysovsky equipment of a design of professor Bauersfeld for 156 thousand rubles, then “the Don sky“ was shown by the device manufactured of domestic materials on the domestic project. It was much simpler and cost 35 thousand rubles - four and a half times cheaper.
The author of the project Mikhail Chistozvonov had only three classes of initial school behind shoulders. Twelve years he went to work for the Moscow water supply system, then returned on the small homeland, worked at local sugar plant. It happened to work to it both at the railroad, and at the mine, and at coal mines. Was a mechanic, the repairman, the driver, owned some other professions - the word, Jack of all trades. The person of inquisitive mind able to reach everything independently Mikhail Vasilyevich became the rationalizer, famous in Mosbasse.
In 52 years he came to the museum of the coal basin Situated near Moscow and, driving excursions on geological department, noticed a great interest of visitors to geogenesis questions. “From here, - Chistozvonov wrote, - I engendered dream of a way of evident giving (explanation) of a geogenesis, the worlds. One of such ways offered by me to the director of the museum of t. To Hmelev, the planetarium also was“. Under it was thought to allocate the place under a dome of the Church of the Saviour given to the museum on the Baize - a grief in Donskoy.
The “planetary“ idea was supported by the Union of militant atheists headed by Yemelyan Yaroslavsky. Yemelyan Mikhaylovich (the real name, a middle name and a surname - Miney Izrailevich Gubelman, years of life - 1878-1943) was for the Tula earth a person not the stranger: conducted revolutionary work in Tula, it happened to come to it on party affairs and to Soviet period here. In 1928, for example, at meeting of the Tula asset of the party he reported on results of the VI congress of Komintern. But, of course, not lyrical memoirs caused interest visible partiyno - the statesman. More likely, very much the offered placement in the cult building of the planetarium urged to propagandize atheism looked attractive. For the member of the Control party commission, an editorial board of the Pravda newspaper and the Bolshevik magazine, the member of the Central Executive Committee USSR did not make a problem to pay attention local partiyno - the Soviet bodies to a useful initiative, and farther there was already a trick.
For “planetary“ works organized special crews and a big workshop, orders of “the heavenly mechanic“ were carried out also at the enterprises of Donskoy. In essence, the planetarium constructed all city. Alone Chistozvonov, at all his talents, would hardly manage to cope - it was necessary to make about ten thousand details! And together, joint efforts, all made in two years. For Mikhail Vasilyevich there were the general management and technical development of the equipment reproducing a picture of the star sky - with its help it was possible to observe five thousand stars, a lunar eclipse and other astronomical miracles. The commission of the All-Union astronomer - geodetic society, invited by founders of planetarium for “establishment of correctness of the star sky“, in the act of acceptance recognized it to “the meeting requirements of scientific character“.
“Moscow region planetarium - the second in the Soviet Union. Its value that it ours - entirely Soviet - from the Soviet materials, is constructed in the regional center. It puts the beginning to big case of creation of the whole network of planetaria on our great Soviet Union. Advance of this remarkable instrument of human thought in broad masses - business of huge importance“, - the director of the museum of the coal basin Situated near Moscow Vladimir Hmelev wrote in the regional “Mining truth“ to the opening day of planetarium on July 14, 1940.
In one and a half months from the date of opening the planetarium was visited by about seven thousand people. From every quarter of the country there were letters of this kind: “Having read a note in the Pravda newspaper of July 19, 1940 that on the Baize - the Grief the second in the Soviet Union planetarium opened... we ask to report the address of the author of the project comrade Chistozvonov. We need to communicate... on a possibility of opening of planetarium in Vyborgsky district of Leningrad“.
And the actor of the Moscow Theatre for Young Audience Reznikov wrote down in the visitors` book: “On the Baize - the Grief, appears, there is a planetarium. For me it is absolutely unexpected. The planetarium which we visited only differed in the sizes from our Moscow planetarium. As for the business which is carried out by it, it is also big and is carried out with the same love as what becomes in planetarium of Moscow“.
The planetary device of Chistozvonov served till 1955, then it was replaced with another, more modern. Mikhail Vasilyevich did not learn about it any more: it was shot in 1942 “for cooperation with the enemy“. The biography of which he never did a secret brought “the star foreman“: it did not manage to be evacuated, and invaders to whom informed that Chistozvonov once worked at a capital water supply system forced it to restore a water supply system in Donskoy. And ours, having beaten out the enemy from the city, did not begin to penetrate into circumstances.
The decision on Mikhail Chistozvonov`s rehabilitation “was made much later and was actively suppressed up to 1995, - noted the official site of administration of Donskoy. - However even recognition of final innocence is only capable to restore a good name of Mikhail Vasilyevich“. But not to return him...