Rus Articles Journal

Who did the first European-quality repair of the Kremlin? The guest workers from solar Italy

Everything studying history remember “the German domination“ of the first half of the 18th century. Here and Anna Ioannovna`s time with Biron, and the more so Peter I with the German settlement. By the way, many of Anna Ioannovna`s Germans - the “baby birds of a nest of Petrov“ ennobled of

In conversation on Minikh I mentioned his predecessors - visitors of engineers and military.

It seems, for the first time the western civil engineers came to Russia in the 12th century: the masters sent by Friedrich Barbarossa to build the Vladimir temples. However, not Germans, but Italians - long time of builders for Russia invited from Italy. And from where? There were best engineers. And 15 - y and the beginning 16 - go centuries when in Moscow the whole group of Italians worked, is blossoming of the Renaissance with all its achievements.

Moscow “collects“ lands at this time. Marriage of Ivan III with Sofya Paleolog, final disposal of the power of the Horde considerably raise the status of the Moscow state. Also open a way to contacts with Europe.

In the Kremlin the new grand-ducal cathedral - Uspensky is under construction. And - already almost completed - collapses.

In several years Ivan III, having decided to invite the Italian architect for his construction, sends embassy to Italy. There a surplus of engineers, but nobody wants to go to Moscow until Aristotle Fioravanti himself offered the services.

To Aristotle already 60, he is very famous engineer. Not outstanding to what it is presented by some authors. But strong, famous architect. Hereditary. It is for the first time mentioned in the Italian documents (the chronicle of native Bologna) in 1447 as the author (together with the founder Gaspar of Nadia) bells for Aringo`s tower. It lifts a bell on a tower with the help to them of the developed lifting device.

Farther information places disputable, not all easily checked. Especially in estimates of activity of Fioravanti.

Its first known work - movement of 13 meters of a belltower of Saint Mark in Bologna. To move the building - not unique at that time, but the difficult work demanding serious qualification.

Further it builds bridges, canals, straightens the lop-sided buildings... But in Venice the building straightened by it failed. The reason in a lack of financing what the architect warned customers about. But those did not allocate additional money.

Nevertheless the master is found partially guilty, including, in death of several people and leaves Venice. Works in Italy, since 1467 - at the Hungarian yard...

But in 1470 - x the master comes across on a fake of money and... offers services to moskovita for rather small payment., It seems, in confirmation of the skill it shows (business was in Venice) on St. Mark`s Basilica with words: “My work! “

In 1475 it comes to Moscow with the son and “parobky to Petrushey“. And at once surprises Russians, having sorted ruins of the failed cathedral: “a hedgehog three years did, in an edina and disorganize week less“. At the same time confirms opinion of the Russian builders - “experts“ on a cathedral cause of destruction: weak solution.

Making the project, Fioravanti goes to Vladimir. Confirms that cathedrals in Vladimir are constructed by Italians. And having imitated Assumption Cathedral, in 1479 finishes Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin: “Byst zhe that church is wonderful velm majesty and height and the grace and sonority and space; it is same before that not there were in Russia, oprich Vladimirsk churches“.

The master did not accept a local brick - a plinfa. It builds brick-works, acquaints with brick manufacturing techniques, proportions close to modern.

In 1478 - m the architect “distracts“ from construction, ordering artillery in a campaign to Novgorod. Similar to Minikh`s history! Yes, long time architects and engineers - in combination gunners and fortifikator. At the same time it builds the pontoon bridge through Volkhov.

Naturally, the architect brought new technologies that was one of main goals of his invitation. The grand duke trusts Fioravanti stamping of a coin. Oh, not for nothing in Italy masters accused of counterfeiting! And it was not something unusual. Time is severe, Italians are people dashing. Those centuries and great artists did not differ in mildness.

Aristotle organized the Gun yard. Guns in Russia poured long ago and well, but them was necessary much, and participation of the Italian master was not superfluous.

Fioravante in Kazan (1482) and the Novgorod (1485) campaigns participates. And before the last unsuccessfully tried to run away home, but it was caught, robbed and put under arrest. Considering that to it under 70, it is no wonder that after 1485 tracks of the master are lost.

There is a probability that Fioravante made the plan of the new Moscow Kremlin. The Kremlin was built not by it, and series of the Italians who went to Russia afterwards. Are constructed by them: Moscow Kremlin; its ditches and bridges; State Yard; Archangel`s Cathedral; Faceted chamber; belltower Ivan Veliky; church of Rise in Kolomna; stone China - the city; the Kremlin in Nizhny Novgorod. Very possibly, stone fortresses of Tula, Kolomna and Zaraysk. And not only...

And the master Fioravante left posterity in Russia! In the following, the 16th century, “The Aristotelian grandson“ is mentioned in one of sinodik. There was it the last descendant or not - it is unknown, but as the nobility...