How there were lotteries?Are data that the word “lottery“ - “lotto“ - is translated from Italian as “destiny“. Modern dictionaries and online - translators will translate in a different way. But if to rummage in educational literature, then in the historian - the etymological dictionary it is specified that as game, this word - the Italian origin. It means: a share, a fate that can be treated as destiny.
The word “lottery“ originates to French “lot“ (or to franksky “hlot“) that means - a lot. And further the word was transformed to English “lot“ (share).
Honestly, it is allowed to win in a lottery a large prize not to everyone, and only to units. Both the winner of a lottery, and people around for certain will think: destiny, so such - happy.
According to some information the word meaning “lottery“ as “destiny“ (a share, a fate) began to be formed in the Genoa republic at the beginning of the 17th century. During elections to Great Council (local government) vote elected 90 worthy candidates. But it was necessary to choose 5 most worthy from them still. The decision to carry out draw on a formula “5 of 90“ was for the sake of justice made, having transferred the right of a final voice - “lotto“.
Lottery history as games where by means of a lot it is possible to win a prize (not necessarily, by the way, valuable and desired), goes far to antiquity: in Ancient Greek myths soldiers pull a lot to battle with Zeus, that is simply - naprosto to die. Who could overcome the main god of ancient Greeks? So in this case the prize did not bring any joy.
It is no secret that almost all people in ancient and not really time practiced rituals with sacrifices. Not always the victim was chosen the responsible person, happened, and the lot decided destiny of unfortunate. Slavs, for example, quite often and did. But that there was a compulsory lot which specially chosen were obliged to pull.
In Ancient Rome carried out already voluntary draws, tickets bought and on the means obtained from carrying out lotteries equipped the city. For some poor people of a lottery happened absolutely free: they pulled out these “pieces of paper of happiness“ and did not go to bed this day hungry any more.
And in Ancient China by means of the income from lotteries strengthened defense. The emperor of Celestial Empire honestly noted every morning the divine hand two happy tickets with hieroglyphs. Also honestly also prizes were given. The Chinese lottery was called “Keno“, and, according to some sources, during board of a dynasty Han (1st century BC) the means received from such draws put in construction of the well-known Great Wall.
It is considered to be that in Medieval Europe the first lottery in 1466 in the city of Bruges was carried out by the widow of the famous artist Jan Van Eyk. And proceeds went to the worthy purposes - on charity. Many persons in need received the help thanks to the resourceful widow, and subsequently lotteries became more and more and already hospitals, chapels were under construction, decayed city constructions were under repair.
Data on various draws of earlier period of the Middle Ages - from 5th century - in Burgundy, the profit on which was spent for the help to the poor and for defense, meet. Very much pressing problems at that time - poverty and a threat of war. What to do: “the dark Middle Ages“ … carried out by
In 1530 in Florence the first official monetary lottery - “De Lotto de Firenze“ which immediately received deafening success. Further victorious procession of the game giving the chance just like that, quite lawfully to break a lot of money, began across all Italy and over all countries of Europe. By the way, the first numerical lottery happened in Holland in the 18th century and from there already removed to other countries.
The lottery was favorable to all. The ordinary citizen dreams to extend the happy ticket and at once to grow rich. On the other hand, the governments of many countries instantly guessed one more source of the income in a lottery: there were always enough gawks and they will buy and buy tickets, so inflow of money will not run low.
Francis II, the king of France, even placed for these purposes special lottery wheels into squares that kind citizens could support at any time the monarch it here in the way. Enough one to extend an advantageous ticket - hundreds of persons interested of easy money will reach for it.
The famous ruler of England, the queen - the virgin Elizabeth I Tudor, could not pass the fashionable and profitable direction in economy in any way. She loved passionately two things: the absolute power and magnificent entertainments. Really, has to be at the woman who offered personal happiness though some outlet. Here also the queen came off as could: balls, hunting, games, masquerades and picnics did not manage to replace each other. However, Elizaveta was able not only to spend idly time, she very reasonably the rule England. But, as ill luck would have it, on everything it is necessary much - a lot of money. Lottery? Let there will be also a lottery.
For its carrying out made 40 000 tickets (according to other data - 400 000), and on the gained money the resourceful and enterprising queen repaired ports and harbors: too many foreign persons interested were to her hand, that is to a crown of England. Here it was also necessary to take measures for safety of borders. The economic difficulties which were quite often accompanying England partially were solved at the expense of lotteries. Elizaveta`s successors carried on tradition. On the money gained from sale of lottery tickets even the well-known British museum was constructed, by hearsay.
The French monarch Louis XIV sometimes literally burst from own importance and narcissism: he quite believed himself that it - both the state, and the sun, and the king in one person. And spoke to people around: “the state is I, misters“. Please make feel welcome. Misters obediently nodded, agreeing. The king - the Sun loved two things too: power and entertainments, as well as Elizaveta Tudor. On the luxury the royal Palace of Versailles did not concede to any another at that time. Magnificent festivals and a set of the ceremonies reaching to the point of absurdity all were multiplied.
A lottery - fashionable entertainment at that time, and of course, the king Louis could not lose sight of it. And prizes had to get by all means to it and the closest favourites - court. The next attack of importance, obviously, suggested to the king this silly idea or misters finally became too choosy. The people, of course, took offense and citizens threatened the king with revolution. The solar Ludovic always remembering the difficult childhood and a sad fate of the cousin and colleague Charles I Stewart of the king of England executed during the English bourgeois revolution instantly recovered and gave money back to people. However, took away prizes.
There are data, as in the USA by the end of the 18th century of a lottery passed regularly and on the income from them colleges, churches and schools were under construction. By 19th century game in a lottery was an everyday occurrence almost in all countries of Europe. During the different periods of the power they were forbidden, however lotteries played podpolno and they had to be legalized, anyway. Eventually, and profit on carrying out lotteries considerable. So why to the state not to take this profit under the personal control, having directed, let not a huge, but stable monetary streamlet precisely in the state treasury?
Our sovereign - the emperor Peter I, as we know, was enough and bore home all learned about through “window to Europe“ which he opened. It is easy to guess, as lotteries were included into this list. The tsar-father had a broad soul: if to build - then also the cities, to strengthen army - here you are fleet, not to cut a beard - and at once to shave, well and the first prize in a lottery - considerable, sometimes and to one thousand rubles. But, despite it, lotteries at Petr somehow did not get accustomed. But Catherine II finally legalized them.
At the beginning of the 20th century Bolsheviks, of course, forbade lotteries, as well as everything that reminded of the former mode: was born, in their opinion, society essentially new in every sense and nothing to drag in it some imperial remnants. But, as we know, lotteries in our country all - appeared later. Our grandfathers and grandmothers played them, and even won. Our mothers and fathers played too.
Play lotteries and today. Regulated by the law “About Lotteries“, they attract law-abiding fans of easy money to spend the - not easily earned.