How plants communicate?of the Letter and SMS, phone calls and social networks - all this is thought up by the person for the sake of exchange of information and communication when ordinary meetings and talk are disturbed by distances and employment. But plants always are on the same place, they cannot glance “on a spark“ to chat behind a tea cup. Nevertheless plants communicate with world around, exchanging information signals and messages.
1. Calls for helpthe Smell of a new-mown grass or cut flowers is pleasant to
for us. But actually it is a chemical distress signal, the prevention to people around about imminent danger and a call for help at the same time.
Allocating a smell, plants attract predatory insects to frighten off wreckers and to resist to their attacks. For example, wild tobacco recognizes caterpillars of a horned worm by saliva and right there “calls in police“ - emits chemical which smell attracts predators within several hours.
2. The notificationnot only call
of the Plant to the aid, but also can perceive signals of neighbors. Having learned about presence near the hungry wrecker, they increase own protection. This ability of plants is confirmed in tens of scientific researches.
For example, the wormwood wounded by wreckers secretes the special defensive protein which is breaking digestive processes of caterpillars and slowing down them growth. This chemical signal is perceived by neighbors, and even representatives of other types, and too will organize additional defense.
In this way wild tobacco arrives, beginning to synthesize a protective protein in advance to meet attack fully equipped.
3. Protection of the territory
without having an opportunity to replace “residence“, plants are forced to compete with each other for “place in the sun“, using chemicals for suppression of the opponent and protection of allies.
So roots of a cornflower emit the substances facilitating digestion of nutrients from the soil. The same substances suppress other herbs. In such a way the cornflower quickly extends across new territories. In recent years it caused the real chaos on the American meadows where got incidentally.
Some plants developed protection against attacks of a cornflower. For example, the lupine emits the oxalic acid forming a protective barrier against toxic attacks. Behind it, by the way, also other types to which oxalic acid does not harm take cover.
4. Family bonds
of the Plant, undoubtedly, feel presence around other plants. This “knowledge“ is necessary for the successful competition for resources, for example for a sunlight. But, as well as many animals, plants can not only compete, but also support close relatives.
So, sea mustard usually tries to develop actively the roots to receive more nutrients. But if nearby “brothers and sisters“, mustard tactfully constrains expansion of root system. Experiments showed that most likely, relatives recognize each other by means of chemical signals.
of What you will not make communication with mammals for the sake of a survival whom only it is necessary to ask for the help.
The carnivorous water-lily of Nepenthes hemsleyan from the island of Borneo to survive, learned to operate bats. The form of a flower of a plant is ideally adapted for reflection of signals of echolocation of bats that attracts the last. Such way of a primanivaniye of pollinators was known to scientists long ago, but a water-lily with Borneo as it appeared, mice are necessary absolutely for other reason.
For bats of Nepenthes hemsleyan - like hotel where it is possible to have a rest. Animals pay for “numbers“ with excrements, providing a water-lily with nutrients.