Rus Articles Journal

Interesting facts in two languages.

of Why does cake and bread go hard, but biscuits go soft when stale?

Why pie and bread harden over time, and stale cookies become soft?

Whole books have been written on this. About it the whole books are written to


The basic answer for bread concerns the crystals of starch in the flour,

In a general view the answer to “a grain question“ will be such: flour contains parts of starch,

of which are gelatinised during baking

which in the course of baking of bread become jellylike

(they take up water and become soft).

(they absorb water and become soft).

This starch gradually recrystallises over a few days in a process called retrogradation,

Within several days after pastries goes the process of disintegration of starch on crystals called by retrogradation,

of so that the bread becomes harder.

therefore bread becomes firmer.

The starch in biscuits also undergoes this process, to

Flour in cookies is subject to this process,

of but it can be overwhelmed by the effect of the sugar that is present in many biscuit recipes too.

but constrains it the sugar which is present at many recipes.

Sugar takes up water from the atmosphere,

Sugar takes away from the atmosphere water,

of and this is what causes biscuits that are left out to go soft.

and it does the cookies left in the fresh air, softer.

Cake can go either way, depending on the recipe,

Pies can how to harden, and is not present, depending on the recipe of preparation,

of and both processes can be hugely affected by other ingredients in the recipe.

and to a large extent influence both processes other ingredients added when cooking.

Can power be harvested from lightning? whether

Can receive energy from lightning flash?

Yes, although it`s probably impractical

Yes, though it is probably not too practical

of because of such problems

from - for sets of problems,

of as designing a capacitor to store energy from a fleeting burst of power.

for example, with arrangement of the store where will be is stored the energy received from the powerful, but swift-flowing category.

Would a metal plate in my head make it stick to magnets? whether

a metal plate in my head Will be attracted to magnets?

No, because metals used for prosthetic purposes such as titanium are nonferromagnetic alloys. there is no

because the metals used for preparation of artificial limbs such as the titan, are not ferromagnetic.

So you can relax, and feel free to have a metal plate fitted to your head with no fear of being stuck to a magnet.

Therefore you cannot relax and to worry that the metal plate will be attracted to a magnet.

Is there mathematics in music? whether

Is in music of the mathematician?

Is there mathematics in music? Yes, the mathematics and music have Yes, there’s a host of connections between maths and music

much in common,

- from the relationship between the lengths of plucked strings

beginning from communication between the size of a pinch of strings

and the notes they produce to the symmetry of Bach’s cantatas.

and notes which they make, finishing symmetry of cantatas of Bach.

Can computers generate truly random numbers? whether

Can generate the computer rather random numbers?

Yes, and it’s because heat in electrical components causes electrons inside to move around unpredictably.

Yes, because heat in electronic knots forces electrons in them chaotically to move.

This behavior can be captured electronically and digitised as

Is the movement it is possible to display in electronic form and to transform to the digital a sequence of truly random numbers form


as sequence of really random numbers.

Why cannot chickens fly?

Why chickens do not fly?

Wild chickens certainly can fly - and do.

of Chicken, living in nature, are able to fly - and do it.

However, they have been selectively bredfor size for thousands of years and

However during the millennia of people specially selected them by the sizes,

of are now too heavy for more than a short flap to the top of a tree.

so now they became too heavy to fly up above the lower branch of a tree.

Free - range chickens also often have the flight feathers on one wing clipped.

Besides at the chickens who are grown up under natural conditions often cut feathers on one wing,

of This makes them fly in a short circle, which discourages them from flying away.

that forces them to fly around and prevents to depart.