And all - it spins! How the pearl grows?Are possible, the first person who found the sparkling pearl in a sink of an oyster counted the find as miracle or gift of gods. But over time people learned to grow up this beauty. Unlike jewels, fossil minerals, natural pearls - a renewable product which is made by industrial methods.
Unfortunately, in cultivation of a pearl there is nothing magic. Pearls - result of resistance of a live organism to external damages. Processes, similar to formation of pearls, happen in lungs of the person struggling with tuberculosis.
To grow up a beautiful pearl, put to an oyster damage and put inside a foreign matter. In response to such barbarous intervention the mollusk tries to isolate itself from a foreign subject. Eventually, it can even push out it outside, but before the oyster is prepared for it, there pass several years.
The natural pearl is formed as a result of casual transfer of cages of an epithelium of a cloak in connecting fabrics where they, breeding, form the closed cyst called by a pearl bag.
“We cannot wait for favor by nature“ therefore on farms by surgical methods enter cloak fabrics together with sink pieces then provide oysters to themselves into a body of a mollusk. In a year the pearl adds in sizes no more than 0,5 mm.
After an inoculation around a transplant formation of a pearl bag begins. The mollusk slowly wraps a kernel in an epithelium layer, and then covers a pearl bag with layers of a polymorphic carbonate of calcium. So the pearl is born.
Its nacreous cover is formed by the aragonite cells fastened belkovo - chitinous organic layers. Thickness of each layer of nacre is measured by micron shares.
Nacre thickness, minimum admissible for commercial use, - 0,8 mm. On formation of such layer it is required over a year. Mechanisms of formation of a nacreous cover of a pearl were not studied until recently. The French researchers became interested in them.
The traditional round form of pearls and nature of natural defects allow to assume that the pearl rotates in a body of a mollusk in process of growth. For check of this hypothesis researchers implanted in pearl oysters of Pinctada Margaritifera tiny magnetic balls around which pearls were formed.
Scientists monitored development of pearls by means of the difficult magnetometric system developed especially for experiment. Magnetomeasures fixed the slightest changes of provision of magnets in mollusks.
As a result of supervision researchers defined that any time (24 - 40 days) after an inoculation of a pearl are not mobile, but then begin to rotate continuously throughout the entire period of growth, doing a whole revolution round its pivot-center approximately in 4 hours 43 minutes with an average angular speed of 1,27 degrees a minute.
According to authors of research which results were published by the “Open Science of Royal Society“ magazine (Royal Society Open Science), they for the first time managed to slightly open one of secrets of the nature and to demonstrate how such difficult structures as pearls are formed.