How there took place the meeting of heads of Union States in Tehran in 1943?fronts were renamed on October 20, 1943 by the solution of state credit obligations: Central - in Belarusian, Kalinin - in 1 - y Baltic, Baltic - in 2 - y Baltic, Voronezh - in 1 - y Ukrainian, Steppe - in 2 - y Ukrainian, Hugo - Western - in 3 - y Ukrainian, Southern - in 4 - y Ukrainian.
Only in fights for Dnieper the Soviet troops freed over 38 thousand settlements, including 160 cities. Such cities as Zaporizhia, Dnipropetrovsk, Cherkasy, Melitopol, etc. were freed. As a result of prompt approach our troops did not allow Germans to blow up Dneproges completely.
In September, 1943 the enemy was beaten out from Novorossiysk, Bryansk and Smolensk. At the beginning of November of part of the Soviet troops left to the Crimean isthmus, and near Kerch created the base.
By the end of November was released Gomel. In December the Soviet parts conducted battles on approaches to Kirovohrad and Kryvyi Rih.
On December 24 our troops started Zhitomirsko`s performance - Berdicheskoy of the offensive operation directed to liberation of Right-bank Ukraine. In this operation, as well as in all other offensive operations of 1943, we had advantage in arms. In particular, the Soviet troops in this operation had almost double superiority in artillery. Therefore the German divisions sustained huge losses.
When planning operations of 1944 Stalin could already tell: “Now we became stronger, our troops are more skilled. Now we not only can, but also have to perform operations on an environment of the German troops“.
Our victories in Kursk fight and in further battles frightened the USA and England so that they at first sent the Ministers of Foreign Affairs to Moscow on meeting for coordination of plans of military operations, and on November 28, 1943 the U.S. President to F. D. Roosevelt and the prime minister - the minister of Great Britain U. Churchill with the suites arrived to Tehran to a meeting with I. V. Stalin. Conference continued with 28. 11. on 01. 12. 1943.
At the first meeting I. V. Stalin told: “We, Russians, consider that the best result would be yielded by blow to the enemy in Severnoy or Severo - the western France. Even operations in Southern France would be better, than operation in Italy …“.
I. V. Stalin was a leader and at conference. On erudition, awareness, decency, will power, intelligence it was higher also than Roosevelt whom the first time, and Churchill met in Tehran. The last wrote that Stalin came to precisely fixed time and when he entered, all got up. Churchill tried to struggle with himself, but every time swelled up from a chair one of the first and held hands on seams.
Churchill told that Stalin deserves a rank Stalin Veliky. But Stalin did not agree with it and told: “It is easy to be the great leader if it is necessary to deal with such people as Russians. The red Army battles heroically, but the Russian people also would not suffer other behavior from the armed forces. Even people not especially brave, even pants become heroes in Russia“.
All attempts of allies to deceive the Soviet delegation at the Teheran conference were not successful. When allies agreed to establish post-war border in the area of Kerzon and brought the card, Stalin looked at this card of the high-ranking swindlers and at them asked Molotov to bring the present map on which the real, but not fictional line of Kerzon was put. It was the unprecedented shame for the Western diplomacy.
Stalin, as politician and person, also such fact from the Teheran conference characterizes. “On the arrival of heads of three powers to Tehran the shah of Iran asked an audience for Churchill and Roosevelt for a greeting of guests. Having arrived to the English Embassy, he long enough waited until there was to it Churchill. Roosevelt`s expectation was less long and, at last, phone call in our embassy with a question when Stalin can accept its excellency the shah of Iran was distributed. The embassy asked to wait to coordinate visit time. The answer which said was quickly enough received: “The head of the Soviet delegation asks when the shah of Iran finds time and will be able to accept it?“
Calling in embassy by a little confused voice told that it was not so understood that the shah of Iran asks when it can arrive to Stalin. However the answer followed that it was understood correctly and Stalin asks about when the shah of Iran can accept it. Calling told that has to report on it on the shah.
After a while the call followed, and reported to embassy that if correctly understood also I. V. Stalin really wants to visit the shah of Iran, the shah will wait for it in it - that time. In precisely appointed hour the shah of Iran had companion Stalin, welcomed it and had with it long conversation, than emphasized that any guest has to pay a recognition tribute to the owner, visit him and thank for the shown hospitality.
Questions of attention in general, and in the east in particular make a certain sense and value. The shah then was very young, was fond of aircraft and received as a gift from us the light plane. Personal visit by his Stalin strengthened even more those friendly relations which subsequently many years existed between our states“, - A. E. Goovanov writes.
Should note that in all the acts, in all foreign and domestic policy I. V. Stalin cared for interests of the Soviet Union and directed to upholding of these interests all the efforts and all the ability.
At a departure from Tehran on December 1, 1943 Stalin told Golovanov that as Churchill the Soviet delegation tried to cheat, all - was necessary to be given to Churchill.
Golovanov describes the interesting conversation of Stalin which took place in several days after conference. “on December 5 or 6 I was called by Stalin and asked to arrive to him on the dacha. Having been there, I saw that he goes in the overcoat thrown shoulders. There was it one. Having greeted, Supreme told that, probably, caught a cold and afraid, not to ache as if with pneumonia because always hard has this disease. Pokhodiv it is a little, he unexpectedly started talking about himself.
- I know, - it began, - that when I am not, not one tub of dirt will be poured out on my head. - And, pokhodiv it is a little, continued: - But I am sure that history wind will dispel all this … The name of companion Stalin is allocated with the best lines, as in the fairy tale. Of course, only good people on light are not. In life any best person surely has also the shortcomings, and at Stalin is them enough. But if consider that companion Stalin can get out the disadvantaged of bondage and slavery, such belief needs to be supported because it will give strength to the people to fight actively for the future, will inhale in them hope and confidence in a victory.
If as it seemed to me, at the beginning of conversation in Stalin`s words some pessimism caused by an indisposition sounded, then the course of further judgments spoke about absolutely other train of thought,
caused, in my opinion, by the Teheran meeting with Roosevelt and Churchill … Somehow at once conversation switched to other subjects, and Stalin without any prefaces passed to need of a conclusion from war of Finland. He was interested in a question whether we can, without performing land operations, by forces of one aircraft to force the government of Finland to drop out of the war.
By the end of 1943 we had in ADD already about one thousand warplanes and could carry out tasks of a great strategic importance. Such mass of planes could make without special tension, say, a raid, similar to a raid of British to Cologne where one thousand planes … participated
Me expressed opinion that will cope with such problem of ADD, and hardly the government existing now in Finland will go to that were erased from a face of a city land of its country, since the capital.
Stalin long went silently. At last told:
- Think over this question. We still will return to it“.
But we, Russians, the most noble nation on the earth and therefore did not make the decision on massive bombings of the cities of Finland with civilians, and broke army of Finns in the battlefield.