Rus Articles Journal

Who is considered as the founder of a behaviorism? B. F. Skinner of

on August 18, 1990 in the apartment in the State of Massachusetts at the age of 86 years left this world the scientist recognized as one of the most great psychologists standing at the origins of formation of psychology as sciences. Some days before it he received a prestigious award in the field of psychology and gave interview. It entered ten the most famous psychologists of the world. On the level of the influence on science Berres Frederik Skinner, the founder of the theory of an operantny obuslavlivaniye and behaviorism, was ahead even of Siegmund Freud.

B. F. Skinner was born in a small town in the State of Pennsylvania. He received the bachelor`s degree on the English literature and wanted to become the writer. But its attempts to write and publish the compositions were unsuccessful. Once, working in a book-store, he saw Pavlov and Watson`s books which changed his understanding about future occupations. He entered the Harvard University on office of psychology.

During study he began to be engaged in scientific researches. In laboratory which received the name “Skinner`s box“ subsequently he made experiments with rats. The essence of experiment consisted that the rat received for certain actions or an award in the form of food, or punishment by means of electric current. As a result he created the theory of an operantny obuslavlivaniye which gave an impetus to further researches of scientists in many countries.

Its theory laid the foundation to the big direction in psychology - to a behaviorism (from the English word behavior - behavior). It studies interaction between behavior of the person and the received results. Subsequently basic provisions of the theory of Skinner formed the basis of behavioural (behavioral) psychotherapy. This direction began to be developed actively as opposed to psychoanalysis because that was too expensive to patients and did not yield the confirmed empirical results.

The main idea of behavioral psychotherapy consists that some manifestations of our behavior and character are incorrectly created skills. And if to change certain skills and habits, then character and human life will change. For example, the person is considered inaccurate because he has a disorder in the house and on a desktop. But if he changes the habits and will always put things on the place, then it will change living conditions. Respectively, the relations with members of household who are irritated by eternal chaos in the apartment can be improved.

Skinner considered that the best way to understand behavior of the person is to look at for what reason of people he performs a certain operation, and on result to which leads performance of this action. The behavioural psychotherapy is used as independently, and in a complex from cognitive. The direction kognitivno - behavioural therapy is officially recognized in many countries as scientifically proved method of psychological assistance.

Skinner always opposed compulsory methods in education and training. He proved that encouragement for good result leads to much great success in training of school students, than punishment and criticism. For example, if the pupil receives any award for well performed task, then its aspiration to training considerably will increase. Its methods are widely used in business for motivation of employees, in special school training, philosophy and other spheres now.

All its works were devoted to the main mission - it is better to make the world. In the books he wrote that at the heart of any social phenomena including wars, exhaustion of natural resources, environmental pollution, the behavior of the person lies. In the book “Outside Freedom and Advantage“ (Beyond Freedom and Dignity) he stated idea that having changed the behavior, we can change the world. In total it published more than 200 scientific articles and 20 books.

Many psychologists criticized Skinner subsequently for the fact that he considered that the behavior of the person depends on external environment. The postulate on a rigid determinism denied a freedom of choice. After a release of its novel - a utopia “Walden - 2“ many criticized it for idea of creation of happy society by means of application of the behaviouristic techniques of change of behavior based on total control.

Still during lifetime Skinner deserved glory, respect and honor. Still its works publish multimillion circulations around the world. Despite criticism, it also had many followers whose purpose same - is better to make the world.