H. A. Minikh. Almost forgotten predecessor of Potemkin: which of Russians laid a way to the Crimea?the Ukrainian events at once urged on interest in history of relationship of our countries. And it is concrete to history of the Crimea. Which of historical characters is connected for us with the Crimea? Namely - with its development?
Probably, development of the Crimea for the majority of us is first of all Potemkin and Catherine II. Still will remember the Russian princes ruling whether in the Crimea, whether on Tamani. But that long ago. At Catherine II the Crimea was annexed, having finished the Tatar attacks and having secured the fertile South of Russia.
But went to the Crimea earlier. For half a century before, in the next russko - the Turkish war. In 1776 - m the Russian army for the first time intruded in the Crimean khanate, vassal Turkey. Before reacted to the Tatar attacks defense strengthening. And gradually advanced defensive zasechny lines to the Steppe. On new lands placed landowners, peasants moved there. Actually, and mastered the South.
And from the beginning russko - the Turkish wars also military campaigns on the South began. The first, and successful, invasion into the Crimea, is connected with a name of the military leader - partly forgotten partially, partly unfairly blackened. Hristofor Antonovich (etopo-russki, po-nemetski-Burkhard Kristof) Minikh ordered a campaign.
Business was in Anna Ioannovna`s government with “all known“ domination of Germans. At first sight, Minikh - one of those Germans. However, objectively special “domination“ was not … But Anna Ioannovna is worthy separate conversation. And Minikh (as well as many Germans serving and at Anna Ioannovna) was invited still by Peter I who estimated him as “the skillful engineer and the general“.
By the time of the Crimean campaign Minikh is the most experienced military, the general - anshef (the commander-in-chief, is slightly lower than the field marshal!) . Perhaps, one of the most professional Russian military leaders. Pyotr finishes transition to army of the European type, and Mingikh - one of the invited officers. He is a general - the major; the fighting officer serving 21 years which were participating at least in two wars, visited in captivity!
The peak of military career of Mingikh fell on Anna`s government from the very beginning of which he is busy with army affairs. 1731 - the general - a feldtseykhmeyster, the chairman of the commission on ordering of the army substarted in previous years. 1732 - the field marshal. Mingikh considerably corrects and orders the organization of army. With 1733 - 34 - guo Mingikh is at war. In 1734 - the m (war) takes Danzig for the Polish throne - with much smaller, than at protected, forces. And then, in russko - the Turkish war, in 1734 - the m interferes in the Crimea.
As far as I understand, then nobody was going to win it. Most likely, the government perfectly understood that not to keep the Crimea. The purpose was simpler, but is more actual - to stop, at last, attacks.
Many from school remember the heroic page of Civil war when in 1918 - m red took Perekop.
In 1836 g Mingikh stormed the Recop (defended by Turks) for the first time. Took. Reached the capital of the khanate, Bakhchisarai. Took, plundered and burned. Took place considerable part of the Crimea. Except Bakhchisarai, plundered and burned present Yevpatoria and Simferopol. In perception of the Crimean Tatars, it was disaster of national scale!
The major circumstance: the campaign to the Crimea was undertaken in 1735 - m, but from - for difficult conditions the army was forced to turn. It in general was nearly main problem of the Russian army. And in campaign of 1736 noncombat losses repeatedly exceeded fighting.
But the way to the Crimea was trodden! And in 1737 - a new campaign under the direction of Lassi, already twice by smaller forces. This time the Recop did not storm, and (again for the first time!) forced Sivash. This campaign was some kind of attack again. About any gain there was no speech! Took Lass and ruined present Belogorsk and left … Me video where representatives of the Crimean Tatars estimated it as purposeful ruin got to
… And was! And it was planned! At least, Mingikh directly and with pride wrote the empress that Bakhchisarai together with the hansky palace “it is plundered and burnt“.
Before the Crimean campaign Mingikh besieged Ochakov. In 1737 it takes the city, personally participating in storm. In 1739 - the m almost without loss breaks large Turkish forces, in fact, finishing war.
And Mingikh “is farther goes to policy“. More precisely, in palace intrigues. And, unfortunately, is mistaken. Having supported Braunschweig family after Anna Ioannovna`s death, arrests Biron. But after revolution Elizabeth banishes Mingikh. Through... 20 years return it and at once Peter III brings closer to himself.
But fighting career of Mingikh would hardly be successful without good army. To them for several years of reorganized. Actually, the disciplined regular army successfully won against the Crimean and Turkish troops. It is confirmed by small fighting losses, including in decisive battles and against superior forces.
Here only Mingikh, in general, went to Russia not behind that. Pyotr invited first of all the engineer. In Wikipedia it is told that Mingikh, coming from “a family of hereditary engineers“, got “a thorough education“. As if indeed, only not just engineers. His father is the colonel holding in Denmark the supervisor`s post behind dams and all water works of two provinces. And judging by career in Russia, Mingikh`s education - younger was not simply, and very “thorough“. And he obviously inherited talent of the engineer.
Mingikh both began service in Russia, and finished “in the specialty“: civil engineer. It is necessary to consider that it meant at that time. The engineer - the most educated person; very often at the same time civil and military. Able both to build, and to destroy constructions. Often also gunner.
Minikh at Peter I was engaged in laying and the device of water communications of St. Petersburg. The concrete facts and examples are in detail given in the same Wikipedia. As well as its army reforms. It is possible to see in St. Petersburg and Mingikh`s works.
It is important that he is engaged in civil engineering and the device of St. Petersburg till 1732. Here charge it ordering and partly reforming of army. In some measure it too construction.
Then wars, revolutions, exile...
Having returned in 1762, Mingikh who kept sharpness of mind is the member of Imperial council. And at its own request - the Siberian governor and the director of Ladoga Canal. And “in loading“ - Kronstadt. Nearly only in Peter III`s environment, capable and ready to resolute actions. And judging by the descriptions of a situation which reached us, it was real to suppress mutiny. Do not become puzzled Petr so, give the management to the iron field marshal - perhaps, and we would not remember Ekaterina. Some little significant attempt of usurpation... It is unknown how history without Catherine the Great would go, and Russia, probably, would go to Europe.
But you should not be fond of alternative history. It is important that Mingikh could break all further history here. Ekaterina knew it. And Mingikh in addition to the posts is appointed the head also the Baltic port. After return it continuously works 6 more years. All life.
The 18th century is extremely eventful also persons. And Mingikh “got lost“ among political characters a little. As military, he was covered by Rumyantsev, Potemkin and especially Suvorov. And emperors of 18 century - as on selection, powerful figures. But Catherine the Great told about it: “Without being a son of Russia, he was one of her fathers“.