What to robots will make muscles of?Robots now different. At all not such as were, say, in 70 - 80 - e years of the past century. If who remembers those times, robots then represented big metal “cases“, nothing in common with a figure of the person having.
Inside there were electric motors, loudspeakers, the tape recorder, a lot of the relay, a board with transistors (and even with radio tubes!) . All this “perfection“ could say: “Hello, I am your assistant!“, to pomigat bulbs, to read any fragment of the text, to pass several meters on castors, to stretch the book from which the text was read. But the hand was not bent, and the fingers which are (quite roughly made) could not perform small work.
A problem of muscles in robotics - one of main and today. Progress, of course, is. And it is very considerable. Robots taught to go, squat, run and even to dance. Some robots can take egg and carry it to other table, without having dropped and without having crushed. Moreover, other robots are able, holding a small bolt in one “hand“, other hand to screw on it so small nut. And it can already be compared to work which is performed by only sensitive fingers of the person under the influence of the reduced muscles. Interestingly, of what do now and want to do in the future muscles to robots?
One of the directions in modern robotics - creation of the devices capable to replace the person on heavy and monotonous operations on execution. For example, the robot - the loader. It has to be able to approach the served object, to see freight, to lift it, to inform the place of warehousing, to lower and repeat operation. And freight can weigh hundred and more kilograms, for carrying by people it to be extremely inconvenient. It is clear, that without strong muscles and the robot will not cope with such task.
Robots - athletes at assembly receive hydraulic systems for rise and carrying of freights. But these systems are bulky, create a lot of noise, do not ensure to the robot speed functioning. Other muscles are necessary. What requirements to them?
First of all, it is durability, elasticity, reliability, small weight. Perfectly muscles of the person meet these requirements. Means, they should be copied? But how? On the basis of what materials?
It was relied on polymeric materials. They weigh a little. The robot with such muscles is capable to lift freight which by 80 times exceeds the weight of the robot! And the strongest in this regard living beings of Earth, ants, can drag the freight only by 20 times exceeding them a body weight. But the most important quality of polymers - their ability to increase five times in length at extension.
The first sensation with artificial polymeric muscles for robots took place in 2010. Then the Athlete robot (Japan) showed that he is able to run not worse than the person. And having fallen from height in one meter, to rise without assistance. And without any violations in the work. Robot weight - 10 kilograms, growth - 125 centimeters. Agree, very promising development of the Japanese engineer Ryuma Niiyama.
In Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) group of scientists under the leadership of professor of Sydney Iipa developed an artificial muscle of new generation. In robotics now in the polymers installing electrical equipment, portions enter ions - the soliton (the small operated reduction in a type of a bend) turns out. At the same time polymers are reduced only in one direction. The group of Sydney Iipa found out that ions should not be added to polymers. It is enough to direct to them light and change of its frequency to operate an artificial muscle. At the same time the speed of reductions increases in tens of thousands of times. Very interesting and perspective opening.
Scientists from National university of Taiwan noticed that onions epidermis (is in a type of a thin transparent film under a peel) well is suitable for creation of artificial muscles. Removed with method of sublimation drying moisture from a film, then processed it sulfuric acid. Further covered a film with a thin layer of gold. But on the one hand the layer was slightly - slightly more thickly. Gave electricity (plus and minus) on gold strips, and the turned-out “muscle“, having reduced, lifted a ball from cotton wool weighing 0,1 mg. Impressive result if to consider scanty weight and “muscle“. What will happen from this opening next - it is hard to say.
Behind robots the big future. And though we are frightened by the fact that in process of the development they supposedly will declare war to the person - in such horror story somehow it is not really trusted. To create the limiter in “brains“ at robots not so and it is difficult. As they say, all in hands of the person - the creator.