How to give the first psychological assistance? Part 2If you give psychological assistance, then, as well as at medical, it is necessary to observe ethical principles and to have necessary knowledge. Often timely support can prevent negative consequences of acute stress in the future.
It is necessary to remember also ethical principles of rendering psychological assistance. There is such expression “to cause good“. It is not necessary to sponsor excessively the person, you show these his weakness and insolvency. The most part of people are able to cope with shock independently. Not all people want to speak about the feelings therefore you should not arrange “interrogation“. Help needs to be given only to those who really need it, and these are, first of all, children and people of advanced age.
In conversation with children needs to consider some features. At once it is necessary to learn where there are parents or attendants. If they nearby, then it is necessary to ask permissions to conversation with the child. In case the child is one, it is necessary to ask, where his parents or relatives, and to do everything possible that to find them.
It is better to sit down or down to be with the child at one level. In conversation it is necessary to ask again to be convinced that you correctly understood that the child wants to tell. You should not use strong emotional words, for example, “awful“ or “dreadful“, thereby you can strengthen alarm. The psychotrauma at children can be shown in the form of regression, that is children begin to behave as if they became several years younger. Additional psychological rehabilitation with the expert will be in that case necessary.
It is impossible to leave children and teenagers alone, with them there has to be someone from adults. At an opportunity, it is necessary to take away children about the quiet place. Very often children cannot put into words the emotions therefore it is possible to suggest them to be engaged in drawing, reading or listening of music. It is better to involve small children in game activity, at the same time it is possible to tell that dolls need too that they were fed and took care of them. With teenagers it is necessary to talk as to adults, to tell the truth about the events. If the condition of the teenager quieter, than at others, it can be involved in vigorous activity too, for example, to look after younger children, to esteem for them, to draw or talk together to those, to a lump it is heavy. Mutual support helps to cope with a situation quicker.
should talk to people of old age slowly and accurately. Some can have problems with hearing and sight, but it is necessary to remember that these phenomena can be both constant, and received as a result of a trauma as a consequence of a disorientation and a state of shock. It is desirable to ask the person about it and then to transfer this information to the expert. The wheelchair, crutches, a stick can be necessary for some elderly people or disabled people for walking or special medicines which they accept.
One more question which can arise is a work of mass media. Often journalists in a pursuit of a sharp plot can be persuasive. The victims need to be informed that they can refuse to give interview or to communicate with journalists if imeto it is unpleasant or heavy. Further it is necessary to protect children and teenagers from viewing of telecasts with plots about this accident. Otherwise there can be retravmatization cases when the reminder on the tragedy can cause surge in strong emotions.
Is also of the phrase which do not recommend to say to the person who is in a condition of acute stress and a grief. Among them: “I know that you feel“, “can, it and to the best“, “it is in the next world better for it“, “what does not kill us, does us stronger“, “it will become better for you soon“, “it is good that you are living“, “could be worse, you had other relatives“, “everything that becomes - to the best“, “you strong that to cope with it“. Just it is better to listen to the person no comments.
If the staff of the Ministry of Emergency Situations or doctors reported about death of the relative, then it is necessary to be near the person. At the same time there can be strong emotional reactions which should not be stopped. If the person cries, it is normal. Cases can cause alarm if the person emotionally fades, that is enters a stupor. At the same time it ceases to react to external irritants, including painful. He should be brought from this state, but it is for this purpose better to find the medical specialist or the professional psychologist. Before arrival of the psychologist it is necessary to try to keep in touch with the person, it is silent talking to it to cause emotions, it is better negative. If the person began to cry or shout, so everything normally, it is not necessary to calm. In situations of a sharp grief the stupor is considered more dangerous, than sobbings. Cases when they first of all gave help to those who cried, and on the one who sat quietly are known, did not pay attention. Such “quiet“ experiences can lead to a suicide or a mental disorder.
There can be a situation when the person is covered by a nervous trembling. In that case it is necessary to strengthen it: having taken for shoulders, to shake strongly within 10 - 15 seconds. After a while the shiver has to pass. Do not recommend to embrace the person or to wrap up in a blanket. It is necessary to watch that the victim did not take the wheel of the car, did not take alcohol or drugs. If at the person excessive physical activity is shown, it is necessary “to ground“ him - to ask to look at you and to describe that he sees around. It is possible to use technology of so-called “square breath“ - on a breath it is considered to four, we hold the breath, too counting up to four, in the same way we exhale. At the same time it is desirable to put the person exactly that hands lay on hips and feet completely rested against a floor. When the behavior of the victim reminds the rushing-about animal, it is necessary to seat violently him, having asked the help for stronger people that they could record his situation.
If the person is invited to a body identification, then it can have a loss of consciousness, vomiting, a sleep, a nervous trembling. In such cases it is possible to offer water or cigarettes. It is not necessary to give any drugs, only medics can do it. You do not know how they can work in a condition of acute stress, and, perhaps, the person can have an allergy to an unfamiliar preparation. It is possible to give only those medicines which it carries with itself(himself) and already accepted earlier.
If you appeared in a situation when it is necessary to help others during emergency situations, you will also need restoration. It is not necessary to overcome itself and to force, motivating with the fact that if to throw everything, then it will look selfishly. Crisis psychological assistance is connected with high risk of emotional burning out, and it can come in several hours if the person is strongly involved in negative experiences of others. Therefore as soon as you feel a limit of the physical and emotional capacities, it is necessary to stop and have a rest.
Unforeseen situations can happen to everyone at any time. But necessary knowledge helps not to make wrong actions. The main thing when rendering psychological assistance in crisis situations - sympathy and support.