How to give the first psychological assistance? Part 1Usually all got used that if there is any accident, act of terrorism or natural disaster, then physicians and rescuers have to be engaged in consequences. At the same time forget about need of rendering psychological assistance. And reaction of the person to a sharp stressful event can be unpredictable and even to have deplorable consequences. What needs to be done in such cases?
Rendering psychological assistance during emergency situations is considered a priority of crisis psychologists. But there are situations when it is necessary to help the person, and nearby there is no skilled expert. In the modern world of people at any time can get into a car accident, endure the fire, an act of terrorism, natural disaster or other cataclysms. At the same time many people need not only medical care, but also psychological.
Shock from endured can provoke different negative mental reactions. The first psychological assistance can be compared to first aid before arrival of ďambulanceď. It is rendered by people who are nearby therefore it is necessary to know the basic principles.
In - the first , it is necessary to control the state and to give help only if you feel forces, both emotional, and physical. If you also badly feel, then it is not necessary to force itself, to take care of itself better, otherwise then the help can be necessary for you. Before approaching the victim, it is necessary most to calm down, behave softly, but at the same time it is sure. As Carlson told, tranquility, only tranquility! During accidents often there is panic, and the most important in this situation - to work surely. If the fear and panic seizes the person, then he begins to make many mistakes and incorrect actions. It becomes easier for some people already from what he sees a number of the balanced person.
In - the second , it is necessary to find contact with the victim, but intervention should not be persuasive. If on the accident site there are many people, then in the beginning it is necessary to observe people and to understand who really needs the help and who can independently cope. The help is necessary to those at whom the disorientation in space, excessive excitement, irritability or aggression, excessive nervousness and panic, and also isolation and apathy is noted. It is also necessary to pay attention to children, teenagers, pregnant women and elderly people. At once it is necessary to respond to a request of those who address you.
For establishment of contact it is necessary to tell the name and to ask how call the victim. You should not look fixedly in the face and to touch the stranger, he can be the representative of other culture, other than yours. If the person refuses your help, it is not necessary to insist. It is necessary to report only where and whom he can address in case of need. If people live in places where often there are natural disasters, they can already know how to behave.
It is possible to ask whether the person needs the help, maybe, he wants to drink, to it cold or hot, something else is necessary for it, that is to specify and satisfy all current physiological requirements. At this stage for the victim it is important to establish comfort and safety. If there is opportunity, then it is necessary to take away the person to quieter place further from the accident site. It is important to protect the person from sounds and smells which can remind of the incident. After that to inform relatives and to ask whether they can arrive.
In - the third , it is necessary to watch an emotional condition of the victim. There are cases that the person learns about death of relatives during accident and wants to do itself harm up to suicide commission. The victim can snatch on other person whom considers guilty of accident. The state of shock can be shown not at once. If you see that the person begins to turn pale, strongly to sweat, to breathe unevenly, he begins strong heartbeat or violation of work of secretory system, then it is necessary to ask for medical care urgently. Intensive emotions can decrease, and then roll with a new force.
If it is necessary to evacuate people to other place, then it is necessary to tell and ask them about it not to leave anywhere. It is not necessary to say to people that they are in safety if still there is a certain threat. Better to say that special services do everything possible for elimination of a problem. Never it is necessary to say what you are not able to execute. For example, if you cannot provide a meeting with relatives, then it is not necessary to say to the victim that he will see them soon.
At communication with people it is necessary to remember the most vulnerable - children and people of old age.