For what the aircraft designer Vladimir Myasishchev sat?75 years ago, on July 25, 1940, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR made the decision on an early release from departure of punishment with removal of a criminal record of the aircraft designer Vladimir Mikhaylovich Myasishchev. However soon only the fairy tale affects … “The security guard parts
us at “place of residence“ as he calls it, on chambers as we think“, - the aviaengineer Leonid Kerber remembered the emergence in tupolevsky “sharaga“. - The door for us the lock does not clank. We look round. On walls of 30 soldier`s beds covered with flannelette blankets at everyone a bedside table, on it a pack of cigarettes “Ducat“, a window in a lattice, several chairs. Already other security guard says something it seems “welcome to have supper“. The person of one hundred and fifty sitting at the tables covered with snow-white cloths at the same time turn the heads, someone screams, someone runs towards, it is a lot of familiar, friendly faces, hands reach for us. Behind different little tables it is found: A. N. Tupoleva, V. M. Petlyakov, V. M. Myasishchev … in a word, all color of the Russian national aviation thought“.
At a boundary of 1937 - 1938 on aviation branch of the country the wave of arrests swept. Took both the leading designers, and simple engineers, technicians. One of the first Tupolev, then a number of employees of the Central aero hydrodynamic institute (TsAGI) disappeared. In January came for Vladimir Mikhaylovich Myasishchev (1902, Efremov - 1978).
By then the designer already earned authority on aircraft industry. He participated in creation of the TB heavy bombers - 1, TB - 3, and also TB - 4, the plane which became the forerunner - giant “Maxim Gorky“. Adjusted release of passenger “duglas“ according to the license bought in America - creatively processed design and domestic engines considerably improved the car which served in aircraft under the name of Li - 2 nearly 40 years. In a word, the person on a look who had many friends and, of course, enemies. They quite could accuse Myasishchev of not proletarian origin - he was a grandson of the rich merchant from the city of Efremov of the Tula province, or in interest “not in our“ art - played major roles in Efremovsky folk theater, loved theater and music. But left so that the arrested colleagues called Vladimir Mikhaylovich among other participants of the “anti-Soviet harmful organization“ headed by Tupolev.
In the case of Myasishchev the protocol of his only interrogation on February 11, 1938 according to which the arrested admitted “the fact of the participation in the anti-Soviet organization and the harmful activity“ is stored. Recognition of special value had no: how many the people who did not recognize fault - known and absolutely simple - disappeared in prisons, at stages, in camps of GULAG … Myasishchev was lucky. It was defined in Central design bureau No. 29 (CDB - 29) - “sharashka“ where “enemies of the people“ in the conditions of strict isolation, but being on a privileged position in comparison with ordinary prisoners, created “Homeland wings“.
CDB - 29 made three independent bureaus - Tupolev, Petlyakov and Myasishchev. Everyone was engaged in the project: the first - creation of the diving bomber, another - the high-rise fighter, the third - a distant high-rise bomber. Official heads of CB were officers of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs. The technological level of such “management“ illustrates a comical case. Several convicts with the offer to create the two-stroke petrol engine for the onboard unit addressed the chief of bureau of Myasishchev. “And what are used now?“ - that took an interest. - “Four-cycle“. - “To pass at once on duple risky, - the chief noticed, - whether it is better for you to be engaged in three-stroke?“ However, from “management“ technical knowledge was also not required. Its task was to provide the end result.
At plant No. 156 down the street Radio in Moscow where was the CDB concluded at first was placed on bedrooms as it is necessary. Later to them allowed to move at own choice. As a result employees of CB of Tupolev gathered in one hall, the floor is lower in two adjacent - employees Petlyakova and Myasishchev. “Though we were also driven by three times a month in a shower, nevertheless by the morning air in bedrooms reminded something average between barracks and the besplatskartny car“, - Kerber demonstrated. Tupolev`s bed stood in the corner in the evenings turning into technical council where questions of a design of planes were discussed. On this daily collecting there were no none of “heads“ therefore people felt freely. Also Petlyakov with Myasishchev went there.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich spent behind bars as the person under investigation more than two years. During this time he managed to calculate and draw the outline sketch of a distant high-rise bomber, to develop the working draft of the car. On it for the first time in the world tight cabins for crew, the same compartments for the equipment and remote control of arms were provided. The project was considered at the highest levels when in May, 1940 the Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR in absentia condemned Myasishchev according to the Art. of St. 58 - 7 and 58 - 11 by 10 years of imprisonment with a disfranchisement for 5 years and confiscation of property. On the same day his teacher Andrey Nikolaevich Tupolev to whom “gave“ 15 years of imprisonment was condemned. After a sentence in life of the condemned aircraft designers nothing changed: same “sharashka“, the same work - only Vladimir Mikhaylovich was engaged in preparation for production of prototypes of the bomber now.
The message about the beginning of the Great Patriotic War plunged prisoners into confusion, they waited that CDB will disband, and will send them in camp. The alarm amplified when the staff of CB was shipped in cars and escorted by sent somewhere to the East. Convicts - aircraft designers did not know that the part of them are formally already free, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR ahead of schedule exempted them from punishment departure.
In August echelons arrived to Omsk. There it was necessary to “tupolevets“ and “petlyakovets“ on the basis of plant of tractor trailers and unfinished car assembly to organize new aircraft factory and in December (!) to begin release of planes. CB Myasishcheva was sent for Irtysh where on the basis of repair shops of aviaschool and airfield of merchant air fleet other aircraft factory … was created
Every other day after arrival by bus carried group of designers from “sharaga“ to the downtown. In regional management of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, Kerber told, “already wait for us and carry out to a reception. Secretaries, ranks with curiosity consider unprecedented capital “enemies“. In a reception attach Myasishchev and several engineers of his CB brought by steamship from to them - for Irtysh: “As well as we, they know nothing, as well as to us, they were not told the word - where what for?“ the door In a few minutes opens, it leaves two generals of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs and Andrey Nikolaevich Tupolev. The general approaches a table, takes a sheet of paper and begins to read: “According to the report of board of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs the Government of the Union decides to release from - under guards …“
Completely rehabilitated Vladimir Mikhaylovich only after Stalin`s death, in 1955 …
At the plant started “from scratch“ under the leadership of Myasishchev made two skilled distant bombers, one of them in 1942 made successful flight from Omsk to Moscow. Stalin thanked for creation of the plane CB Myasishcheva the telegram, was given out to designers 25 - a thousand award which they contributed to fund of defense. Unfortunately, the car did not go to a series for the objective reasons. But further the high-rise high-speed aircraft considerably relied on ideas and the principles underlain by Vladimir Mikhaylovich and his employees in a design of this plane, experts note.
During war Myasishchev worked on creation of the new aircraft equipment, as the chief designer of plant “led up“ after Petlyakov`s death his diving bomber of Pe - 2, in a peace time headed CB on creation of strategic bombers with turbojets, was professor of MAI, the director of TsAGI. According to colleagues, it always went on a step, and even on several steps ahead of the time. By Myasishchev`s planes 19 world records were established. And, of course, not incidentally chief space designer Sergey Korolev called Vladimir Mikhaylovich the teacher - Sergey Pavlovich began the design biography the same prisoner, working in “crew of a wing“ of CB Myasishcheva at Radio Street.
From positions of today history with “landing“ and Vladimir Mikhaylovich`s “release“ looks absurdity. But inspirers and directors of this absurdity had the logic in which - as terribly it sounds - along with other reasons there was an economic background: intellectual work in the conditions of isolation provided the solution of complex technical challenges in the shortest possible time. Not therefore whether and arrests of “enemies of the people“ had wavy character? New planes were required - put aircraft designers, and those made everything that from them was required. There were problems with the automatic weapon? That, citizens experts, desire “to sit down“ and solve …
Vladimir Mikhaylovich`s Life, the Doctor of Engineering Gennady Amiryants wrote, was as dramatic as also interesting, filled with a set of events, meetings, falling and take-off; in it there were both humiliations, and (more rare) awards, disappointing losses and joyful achievements: “The person Dolga, he was, undoubtedly, proud, but reserved and laconic. He did not love big words and when wanted to tell about especially important, began to lower everything voice. All who were not grew blind saw and appreciated with what advantage he transferred both success, and adversities“.