How the French revolution made revolution in military science? Part 2But wars is not only a system, strategy and tactics. These are, first of all, people. This supply and ration. And losses.
With revolution the system of supply changed. On theater of war even officers (any more not noblemen!) carry supplies in satchels. Seemingly first the opponent took officers with satchels for unter, so it was atypical. Supply with local means, too difficult to old armies was widely used. There everything was necessary to control. Weakening of discipline threatened with desertion.
Revolutionary army - “national“. The lodging for the night, partially contents (for the period of a billeting) troops were imputed to the population a duty. Naturally, and education was sharpened on self-discipline.
Also you should not be deceived about “nationality“. Some feeling of unity, ““, of course, was. But we will consider: the national consciousness is only formed. …
the Army effectively “milled“ class communications citizens and peasants in soldiers. That in Russia that in Europe.
Quantitative changes in military science … not to the best also began with the French revolution.
Were called suitable at the age of 20 - 25 years. In 1804 France entered continuous series of wars and service life turned into formality. But it is natural! Besides not France began these wars … with
the speech about another Now. The general duty at once increased armies. Until then military leaders did not pursue quantity. Linear tactics in a Prussian ideal is a maneuver by all line of troops in the battlefield; five-transitional system on theater of war; rest in camps. Ideally army - separately, the population - separately. The governments and armies are at war. Officers and soldiers exist in the different planes.
The first victories of new army are obliged to serious numerical superiority. New approach was born: to reach a superiority in strength in the place of blow. Mobility is necessary - and attack by columns had by the way.
Well and the more troops - the better...
Wars of 18 century are bloody. It is explainable: the extended system, dense counter fire and slow measured approach. But at a mushtra and discipline fighting capacity remained at considerable, to 50%, losses.
Revolutionary armies, at their large number, seldom lost more than 10%. The soldiers who are not constrained by a dense system simply receded or took cover.
Everything changed with Napoleon`s arrival. The troops rallied in a column were capable to resolute blow; and strategically Bonaparte seeks for decisive battle. It including the only way to achieve a victory.
And this new! Avoiding losses, commanders of 18 century not really looked for collisions. Frederick the Great was skilled manoeuvrer. The special counter was to compel the opponent to recede maneuver on theater of war, threat to communications.
Napoleon considerably shifted focus. And losses increased … Normal army of 18 century - several tens of thousands; battle on space of 2 - 3 km. lasts 1 - 2 hour. Now battles hours-long, capable to proceed several days on big spaces.
About 130 thousand from each party participate in fight at Borodino approximately. Losses estimate very much differently, but also by the minimum assessment they are big: on 30 - 35 thousand from each party.
And it not the most mass battle.
All estimates approximate! There is no exact statistics, in losses can write down both captured, and transferred to the reserve (especially if war lasted for years).
Friedrich 2 schiat that 180 thousand Prussian soldiers died in Seven years` war. In Austria - 140 thousand. The general fighting losses of Europe - 642 thousand
In revolutionary wars (1791 - 1798) France lost about 450 thousand the killed. As much - opponents. There are also big figures.
On Napoleonic wars there are no exact data. Except large battles - but also there not all also is clear. There is an assessment in 900 thousand dead. 680 of them - the killed. The others - died of wounds, here is still more conditional. It without wounded and civil. In 18 century still there was an idea that armies, but not the population are at war. That wars should not cause serious damage to economy. But already in Seven years` war of it not all adhered … And Prussian and Russian troops behaved correctly (as far as it is possible in the war). What not to tell about the Austrians.
With revolution war became national. The army was formed of the population, after service of soldiers came back. And in the war - the army considerably contains the population, a billeting - at the population. The national consciousness was formed.
Of course, even peacefully going through the country (especially others, but also the) mass armies did not improve an economic situation. Especially battles, approaches - retreats of big armies could not but ruin the district.
We will remember at least 1812, then these problems were especially shown.
And situation changed not to the best since then.