Rus Articles Journal

Make-up history from the 19th century to 1930 - x years. How the coddled lady was replaced by “vamp“?

After Great French revolution aristocratic fashion with its abundance of whitewash, blush and front sights gradually consign to the past. If at the beginning of the 19th century Napoleon Bonaparte still could lecture the lady for the fact that that was on public not rouged, then soon indecent is made up person.

In fashion - naturalness which was extremely difficult to be achieved by means of cosmetics of that time. At the same time canons of a beautiful woman`s face continue to remain the whiteness and a flush. Here it is only necessary to try to obtain it in the natural ways. For example, for formation of a flush of the girl ate wild strawberry or just pinched themselves for cheeks. And for giving to skin of a whiteness drank vinegar or ate specially purified pounded chalk (it was on sale in drugstores). To lips could unless to add vaseline gloss, and absolutely a little to tint eyes.

Moreover, at the time of romanticism a peculiar “tubercular“ chic prevailed. Romantic, sublime nature had to look not only coddled and refined, but it is desirable and … painful. That is pale, iznemozhenny, with dark circles around eyes. The beauty suffering from a consumption - a frequent image on pages of literature of that time (it is enough to remember Margarita Gaultier from Dumas`s novel - younger “The lady with camellias“ to whom many impressionable ladies imitated). Therefore from cosmetics only powder enjoys popularity.

Theophil Gaultier:

“The most delicate powder allows to give to skin a mica, marble shade and to hide that healthy flush which looks today is absolutely inappropriate because assumes superiority of physical requirements over spiritual needs. By means of powder of a shape of a live body approach statue forms; they are cleared and spiritualized“.


In the second half of the 19th century cosmetics is used more often. The fashion-maker of that time is the French empress Evgenia - already enough considerably blackens ink the eyes. However the bright make-up is considered vulgar and relevant only to prostitutes, actresses, ballerinas and other “demimondaines“. Other lovers it is excessive to decorate faces everywhere condemn.

Leann Linton “The Saturday review of literature“, 1860 - e: “This creation which dyes hair and decorates with

the person as though it is the first precept of its religion. Washed away her lives - fun, a main objective - luxury“.


at the beginning of the 20th century of a great sin in cosmetics is not seen any more. All ladies use it, but it is very moderate. For example, powder is usually applied to bleach the reddened nose in the winter and to hide the shining face in the summer. However, cosmetic business did not become yet universal therefore the cosmetics can be found mainly in theatrical shops.

Actually, the new page in the history of a make-up also begins with a stage of theaters and screens of cinema. Under the influence of actresses in 1910 - x years begin to be painted even more often more brightly. In the State of Kansas even suggest to forbid to use cosmetics to ladies of 44 years that “not to make false impression“ .

The matter is that the cinema then was mute and chyorno - white therefore actresses had to put bright (even a little grotesque) a make-up. In - the first, it looked under light of spotlights better. In - the second, gave to the face expressiveness - feelings and passions had to be expressed without the aid of words.

Cinema does popular eye mascara which in 1830 - x years was invented by Eugene Rimmel (by the way, the Rimmel firm exists still, and the word in the Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish languages is a synonym of the word “ink“).

However Rimmel`s invention long was not in demand until in 1913 other man - the chemist Terry Williams was engaged in ink. Not commercial interest, but family stimulated Williams - his sister Mabel sat up in maids, and she urgently should be married. To make eyes of the sister is more more beautiful, the chemist also made ink, having mixed soot with vaseline. He pressed mix in plitochka and added to a set a brush for drawing. Speak, the invention helped, Mabel was married off, and on light the firm with her name - yes was born, it is good to us the known Maybelline.

Two years later the cosmetic set was enriched with one more invention - in 1915 in the USA let out the first lipstick in a tube.

And in 1916 the director David Uork Griffith for the first time uses false eyelashes for to - f “Intolerance“. He wanted that the heroine of the movie - Attarey`s princess (actress Sienna Owen) - had the look shining “it is more, than life“. For what pasted it on eyes the magnificent fringe which is almost reaching cheeks.

In the sphere of cinema there began the work famous Max Faktor. That which entered the concept “meyk-ap“ into use idea of color harmony in a make-up (shades have to be in harmony not only among themselves, but also with a natural hair color, skin, an eye), and embodied it in the concept of four color types of women. He improved and spread false eyelashes, and developed a specific make-up of lips for the actress Clara Bowe - so-called “onions of the Cupid“ with the curved line of the upper lip and claret lipstick giving to a mouth the form “a heart - a kiss“.

But, probably, the most important for women of fashion of the whole world was the fact that in 1927 Max Faktor began mass production of compact cosmetics bags. Now any woman could make up with their help in the same way as its favourite movie star.

In 1920 - e years the bright make-up already descended from screens straight in masses. The languid coddled ladies were replaced by impudent and active girls with rather flat figure and boyish hairdresses. However it was impossible to confuse them with boys, at least already from - for abundances of the cosmetics creating a frightening and attractive image of “vamp“.

“Smoky“ ink enveloped eyes, giving them the round closed form (so-called “smoky eyes“). Sometimes before drawing a make-up in eyelids rubbed vaseline - for gloss giving. Did the most dark an internal corner of an upper eyelid, and external corners of an eye (and also eyebrows) were “sadly“ priopushchena.

Eyebrows pulled out (or shaved off), and on their place drew the accurate black line. Sought to draw eyebrows far away from each other - so to speak, in scattering.

Except eyes the emphasis was placed also on lips. However, unlike huge and touchingly sad eyes, the mouth was drawn makhonky and accurately outlined (not without reason persons 1920 - x seem years today with astonishment - offended). From now on lipstick becomes the constant satellite of a female cosmetics bag. The most popular color of lips was dark-cherry with an opaque shade, i.e. without any gloss.

It is opaque - also all person had to look pale. Blush if is applied, then gentle shades and in the form of round spots.

In 1930 - x years the make-up becomes quieter, but not less “doll“. Film celebrities remain fashion-makers still.

Lips continue to look “intense“ - have an accurate contour and the form of “kiss“, but their size becomes more natural. The center of lips is allocated, and corners rise in the squeezed smile. Color of lipstick any more not such saturated and dark. Also the lip gloss begins to be used.

The main emphasis in the person is placed on eyes. Their contour is accurately allocated and connected in a corner. The space under an eyebrow is lightened, and below - shadows of dark shades are applied on eyelids -. Eyelashes are plentifully made up that they looked long and dense.

Well, and of course, the first that is evident in a make-up 30 - x - so is eyebrows. They were thinly pulled out and added, seeking to give the form of the arch directed by the highest point to temples. With such curved eyebrows the lady could look as slightly surprised (as Gene Harlou), and cold haughty (as Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich).

The second feature of a woman`s face 30 - x years - high cheekbones. To allocate cheekbones, under them the dark, well shaded blush was applied. The Skulastost “and - la Garbo“ was so popular that some women of fashion extracted to themselves the upper lateral teeth to make cheeks hollow.

In the second half of 1930 - x years the cosmetics bag of the woman was added with two more innovations. In 1936 Max Faktor lets out the first foundation, and in 1939 Elena Rubenstein develops the first waterproof ink. But as this ink was created on the basis of turpentine (so, not really well smelled and caused an allergy), used it only in exceptional cases.

Be continued.