Make-up history from the Middle Ages till the 18th century. Who on light of all is lovelier, all ruddier and is more white?After an era of luxury and hedonism of the Roman Empire are come by severe times of the Middle Ages. The Christian church did not encourage female temptations and declared that artificial decoration of the person indulges two sins at once - to voluptuousness and arrogance. Consumption of cosmetics in Europe promptly decreases. Italy remains almost only European center of production of cosmetic preparations.
After an era of luxury and hedonism of the Roman Empire severe times of the Middle Ages come. The Christian church did not encourage female temptations and declared that artificial decoration of the person indulges two sins at once - to voluptuousness and arrogance.
Consumption of cosmetics in Europe promptly decreases. Italy remains almost only European center of production of cosmetic preparations.
The face of the beauty has to look modest, unearthly and spiritualized now: densely squeezed, bloodless thin lips, the most open “pure“ face form and big convex forehead. To achieve it, women it became necessary to shave hair a forehead and to pull out eyebrows (at times together with eyelashes). However and these actions were treated to condemnation.
Geoffroi de la Tour Landry, 1371: of
“Dear daughters, do not pull out either eyebrows, or temples, or hair from a forehead that those seemed how that was appointed by the nature“.
Other interesting moment of an era of the Middle Ages - fashion on slanting eyes. To achieve it to the European beauties it was difficult.
Vera Papkova “From history of wedding fashion“:
“... various means provoked diseases and painful states which are followed by a face edema - at hypostasis bloated cheeks and the swum-away eyes created effect of “soshchurennost“ and got a raskosost“.
excessive pallor as a symbol of aristocratic beauty for a long time becomes fashionable (suntan then was a sign working under the sun, common people). Especially courageous ladies even did themselves bloodletting, but usually to use there was notorious whitewash from lead. Italians used them so plentifully that they quickly spoiled to themselves skin. Then to return freshness, put to skin … the pieces of beef moistened in milk.
An image emaciated astenichek, ready here - here to leave this frail sinful world, quickened with the advent of troubadours and their cult of the Great Lady a little. Now from the beauty it was required that her look was clear and cheerful, lips and cheeks reddened, like a rose, and the chin was small, round and doubled.
Guillaume de Lorris, Jean de Men “Novel about Roza“ (13th century) : “It was fine and lovely to
: braids are light as a bowl, flesh is more gentle than a chicken, a forehead clear, eyebrows - arches. For ever I did not see such eyelashes, and the nose beautiful is direct, and eyes sparkle, as at a falcon, on envy to pants. Also its breath is delightful, the face is ruddy and light, the chubby mouth, a dimple on a chin is small“.
New tendencies generate demand for cosmetics again. In 1190 the king Philip II Augustus gave privileges to those, “who has the right to prepare and sell all grades of spirits, powders, lipsticks, ointments for a whiteness and clarification of skin, soap, fragrant waters, gloves and leather products“.
The revived fashion on cosmetics is well displayed in the playful poem of the troubadour by the name of the Monk Montaudonsky. There statues complain to the Lord that for them there is not enough paint - a pier, all it was spent for decoration of faces of medieval women of fashion. And the poet, as well as it is necessary to a courtois damopoklonnik, protects women:
-... No! Yes wholly
their Natural look will be returned to wives.
Though a face is speckled by paints,
saliva Will erase them perfectly.
- the Lord, I with them would be gone:
So So much blush imposed noses of a nabelila,
That I would not gather saliva!
Though my business - the party,
But who is deprived of beauty, to look for Prikrasu`s
is forced, -
What fault on tons?
- the Monk, but a prikrasa is guilty:
everyone who is seduced by it is already involved by
I plays the subjects Satan.
- the Lord, but Monfora the wife
of Elid - as roses a bud,
of Slyunyavit its not a reason:
the Live charm in it is visible!
Well, and during an era of Medieval “thaw“ - the Renaissance - the cosmetics becomes obligatory for any woman respecting herself again. Try - without foreign means to achieve a fashionable combination of golden hair and black eyes? Therefore many artists earn additionally the fact that they instead of cloths paint faces of notable Italians (i.e. become similarity of modern makeup artists).
In fashion high foreheads, a bezbrovost and snow-white skin remain for a long time (see “Gioconda“ of Leonardo da Vinci“). Only now the person has to look not painfully pale, and have a healthy shade of a flush.
Torquato Tasso, “the Freed Jerusalem“, 1581:
Flares gently - a pink flush
On a pure whiteness of her face; there is no
But on lips, breath sweet full,
a whiteness: flush bright only.
Grows white an alabaster neck,
the Ambush and a shelter of Cupid...
In the XVI-XVII centuries the cosmetic center of Europe. Louis XIV even makes so-called. “The card of tenderness“ where ordered what shades the court lady when drawing a make-up has to use.
If our contemporary saw the living woman of fashion of an era of baroque or an era of rococo, then, most likely, would be terrified. Women were so plentifully bleached and powdered that their persons were sometimes showered like plaster. Powdered even children.
By the way, it is considered that the first prototype of compact powder was invented in Spain. There applied powder of different shades then it was possible to tear off the necessary piece on the sticky sheet of parchment and to walk them on the person.
In the same Spain also the concept “blue blood“ appeared. The matter is that after reconquest of the country Moors pride of the Spanish aristocrats had translucent blue veins on skin (the certificate that their sort did not mix up with incorrect). Even the English queen Elizabeth I by an old age began to draw similar veins over several layers of whitewash.
In the XVII-XVIII century true opaque pallor gets out of fashion (already saw enough of it after several epidemics of plague). Persons, of course, continue to bleach actively in the spirit of fashionable then porcelain (for gloss in cosmetics add egg white), but now are not sorry and is ruddy. As spoke at that time, “fight of a rose and a lily“ has to be reflected in cheeks. At the same time blush begins to apply not only on cheekbones, but also about lips, eyes and temples.
Besides, women blacken eyes and direct eyebrows. In the price doll tiny lines: roundish persons, accurate ears, a snub-nosed nose, chubby cheeks, whimsically mumpish scarlet sponges, and under them - tiny (often double) chin with a dimple.
Huge popularity is gained by front sights - pieces of dark silk fabric which were perfectly allocated on snow-white skin. They as if placed emphasis on a certain part of a body, drawing to it attention. And over time front sights became the whole rule of identification marks. The front sight in a corner of an eye symbolized passionate nature, on a forehead - majestic, over a lip - coquettish. By means of front sights the lady could give a signal to the lover: “Tonight I one“. Or, opposite: “It is better not to approach me“.
At the same time front sights perfectly hid spots, ulcers, the pockmarks very widespread at that time.
In the 18th century deliberately artificial beauty reaches peak. Try learn what actually the lady disappears under layers of powder and blush, topped with a wig and tightened in a corset. Some fashionable tricks are nowadays capable to cause only laughter. For example, false eyebrows which did of skins of fur animals and it is frequent also ordinary mice. Or small pillows which pushed in a mouth that cheeks did not seem drooped.
Not everywhere excessive use of cosmetics caused approval. So the parliament of Puritan England even issued the amusing law in 1799: “All women, regardless of their estate and age which after publication of this law will seduce subject its majesty by means of spirits, lipsticks, blush, face color, with false teeth, high heels etc. will be judged for sorcery, and marriage will be considered invalid“ .
In the second half of the 18th century, at the end of Maria Antuanneta`s reign violence of cosmetics on faces of the French ladies became silent a little. Now excessively nabelenny woman is associated rather with the prostitute, but not with the aristocrat. Began to Rumyanitsya and be powdered less. Natural beauty, and also cosmetics from natural materials begins to be appreciated more and more.
However even ascending on a revolutionary scaffold, the French aristocrats worried about how they look.
O. Kabanes, L. Nass “Revolutionary neurosis“:
“Before leaving the chamber to go on a scaffold, it (the princess Stenvill Monakskaya - S. K.) asked the servant to give her blush: “And what if the nature wins, - she exclaimed, - and I will test minute of weakness? Let`s resort better to art that to hide it““.