Rus Articles Journal

How Ferdinand Magellan went to the glory? Global cruise and its results

Through pass are passed through the continent, but Magellan did not calm down. To return meant to give all that it opened, into strange hands, in exchange without having received anything. He solved in that that began to reach “islands of spices“. Also reached. But exactly there it was waited by death. He died in fight with natives, having overestimated the forces. During swimming he made so many discoveries that would be enough for many people.

Historians claim that many years Ferdinand Magellan was the only captain who passed from Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean without loss. It so, except for that in way one of the ships - “San - Antonio“ disappeared. Having convinced that expectation is senseless, Magellan continued a way. He did not happen to learn what happened to the gone vessel, and only those to whom has the luck to return to Spain, understood this history and put the end to it.

The part of Spaniards - captains of the ships entering Magellan`s squadron tried to carry out revolution and to overthrow the hated Portuguese. The route developed by it was kept strict secret, but it was clear that all are expected ahead by money and glory. Careful Magellan managed to prevent several attempts of mutiny. One of them ended with execution of the head of plot and disembarkation to the coast of his closest assistants. On all vessels Magellan`s supporters were appointed captains.

It would seem, all - dangers behind. However when passing the passage the squadron came across a fork, and Magellan decided to direct two vessels - “Concepcion“ and “San - Antonio“ - to investigation. “Concepcion“ returned with the message that further a way is not present, and “San - Antonio“ was gone.

By the ship there was a revolution, the helmsman “San - Antonio“ Esteban Gomes, the Portuguese who moved, as well as Magellan, to Spain, lifted mutiny, chained the captain Mishkita in a chain, developed the ship and went to Spain. There he accused Magellan of change, but the careful monarch, suspecting desertion, just in case put in prison all team which was let out only after return of the main expedition home, that is in long three years.

Gomes`s destiny is curious. After he was released from prison, the king charged to it … to find other pass through the American continent, North this time - western. In September, 1524 it sailed to east coast of North America. Heavy ices did not allow Gomes to break through on the West, but within several years it reconnoitered and plotted a huge piece of east coast of North America. Thus, it made the contribution to history of Great geographical discoveries too.

There are two questions. The first: what induced Gomes to desert? And the second: why the king of Spain entrusted it one more ship for further swimmings?

When it became clear that the passage is found, Magellan called officers on meeting where Gomes declared that the objectives of swimming are achieved and continuation of travel is disastrous for all as there is almost no food left. He suggested to return to Spain, to report on the made discoveries, to repair vessels, to fill up team and again to go to swimming. Magellan rejected his offer, but Gomes decided to return one, having exposed Magellan the traitor, and himself the hero. Number did not pass. Well, and motives of the king are obvious too. There were not enough skilled seamen as there was a development and colonization of Caribbean countries. Gomes proved as the skilled captain, returned to Spain though could go to Lisbon and there expensively sell this history.

We will return to Magellan`s swimming. Having left the passage, the thinned flotilla during 4 - x crossed months the Pacific Ocean. They were lucky, all this time the ocean was quiet. There is practically no provisions left on vessels, seamen began to die of hunger. Magellan sought to reach Islands of Spices as then called the Moluccas, but, being afraid of a meeting with Portuguese, took to the north therefore in the beginning opened the island of Guam from group of the Mariana Islands where travelers otjetsya a little, and then the Philippine Islands which Magellan called Saint Lazar`s Islands. Being afraid of skirmishes with natives, seafarers found the desert island Homonkh and arranged infirmary there. On fresh water and food patients quickly gained strength, and the ships went to swimming between islands. On one of them there were people speaking the native language of the slave Magallanes Enrique whom that bought during a siege of Melaka.

Thus, Enrique became the first person who rounded the earth: in the beginning from present Indonesia it floated on the West to the Iberian Peninsula, and then in several years continued the movement on the West, having reached native places.

On April 7, 1521 expedition reached the island of Cebu, it were already quite civilized places, and seamen began to trade, exchanging a glass beads and iron knives for products from silver and gold. Magellan christened the lord of the island and all its family, having promised that the population of the neighboring islands will bring into its submission. One of leaders opposed Magellan`s proposal to pass under the power of the island of Cebu, and the commodore used military force. On April 27, 1521 in battle Magellan was killed. The lord of the island of Cebu converted to Christianity invited to himself to a feast of officers of team, there foully attacked them, having killed several tens people. The ships had to sail and go hastily towards the Molukksky archipelago.

After the whole series of adventures the only ship with the symbolical name “Victoria“ under Juan Elcano`s command returned home. Expedition, unique in the history of world navigation, was so complete. Ferdinand Magellan, though he also could not finish swimming, became history as the first person who bypassed around the globe. He visited the Malay Archipelago, in the beginning having reached from Europe through the Indian Ocean there, and then - across the Quiet and Atlantic oceans.

There will not be enough fingers on hands to list the discoveries made within several years by Ferdinand Magellan. Here the main:

- the practical testimony of sphericity of Earth is submitted;

- is proved existence of the uniform World Ocean;

- is established a true ratio between the land and waters of the seas and oceans, the actual sizes of Earth are shown; - the paradox of change of time at travel along parallels is open for

that it became the basis for introduction of system of time zones and the line of change of dates;

- is opened all coast of South America to the South from La Plata;

- was for the first time rounded America from the South; - Patagonian Kordilyera is open for

;

- is found the passage connecting the Atlantic and Quiet oceans, bearing his name; - the archipelago Tierra Del Fuego is open for

;

- is for the first time crossed the Pacific Ocean; - the Mariana Islands are discovered by

; - Philippines are discovered by

;

- is opened family of not flying sea birds - penguins.