Rus Articles Journal

How Ferdinand Magellan went to the glory? The beginning of a way

What it is necessary to make that you recognized great and your name forever became history of mankind? The great seafarer of the XVI century Ferdinand Magellan all the life showed this difficult and deadly way.

There was the 15th century. Growth of the population of the leading European countries was followed by fast development of craft and trade. There was a need for international trade, and generally with the countries of the East, exactly from there spices and luxury goods of the Chinese and Arab production came to Europe a thin streamlet.

Exhaustion of the gold deposits and silver, known and available to Europeans, threatened possibilities of stamping of money and demanded access to the new markets of precious metals.

Opening of new maritime routes on the East was promoted by emergence of the new sailing vessel - a caravel, intended for long voyages. In comparison with old vessels of a caravel had undoubted advantages - compactness of the ship operated by small crew was supplemented with capacious hold and excellent maneuverability. Equipment of the ships guns, and teams - firearms, promoted safety of long voyages. Besides strongly the cartography and navigation moved ahead.

Everything went to the fact that resolute break in expansion of the manned world, known for Europe, will be made. At that time Portugal therefore it is not surprising that the first of series of Great geographical discoveries fell to the share of her seafarers was the leading sea power in Europe.

In 1488 Bartolomeu Diash managed to make grandiose break, having rounded the most southern cape of Africa which he called “the cape of storm“, and for the first time having in the history got to the Indian Ocean from Atlantic. Now this cape is known as the Cape of Good Hope.

That year to little Ferdinand Magellan 8 years were executed. The little is known of his early childhood. One thing is clear, that it was from a notable Portuguese family as in youth was a page at the queen, Zhuan II`S wife.

The Portuguese seamen worked real miracles. Vasco da Gama managed to reach in 1498 coast of India. From this point a squadron behind a squadron of the kingdom directed on the East, enriching both the state, and personally the king who acted as a peculiar sponsor. The ships in the sea turned out very much that the competent, trained seamen began not to be enough. Business reached that for simplification of orientation of the helmsmen who are not knowing where left where the right, tied garlic to the right board of the vessel, and to left onions and only thus the captain with the skipper could direct. So “hay - straw“ is not absolutely Russian invention.

In 1505 for the first time in reports on swimmings of Portuguese the mention of Ferdinand Magellan appeared. He was a supernumerary soldier by one of the ships of a squadron which problem included Kilva`s taking and Mombasa (nowadays large ports in Tanzania and Kenya) which was necessary as intermediate points on the way to India, and then creation of a small outpost in Kannanure (India). Exactly there in fight with the Indian fleet Ferdinand Magellan also caused a stir, than deserved the mention in the report to the monarch of Portugal.

After that the name of Magellan began to be mentioned in increasing frequency. In 1506 he again in India and again participates in battles, this time the Portuguese armada arrived to suppress disorders of local population. And here it already on Mozambique Island where in 1506 participates in occupation of the island, and soon again in India where he will be wounded twice. Almost at once he participates in fight at Diwu (a small strong point of Portuguese in India) where the ship by which it is, broke through a system of the opponent and boarded the flagman enemy ship, having ensured, thus, a victory.

For complete control over India there was a need to seize the southernmost tip of Indochina, the Malay Peninsula. By one of five ships of the Portuguese squadron Magellan and his friend Serran float there.

On September 11, 1509 the Portuguese squadron without any problems entered Melaka. The signed originally trade agreement with the Arabs controlling all trade in the region in several weeks was broken off by attack of Arabs on Europeans. Attack was absolutely unexpected, it happened when the most part of teams of Europeans was ashore. In the same place there were also almost all boats. To this moment to the ships there arrived allegedly for examination the great number of Malayans.

The captain on whom there was Magellan smelled rat and directed Fernan to the flagship with the warning of possible attack. The admiral Sikeyra managed to take necessary measures and when the signal of the beginning of attack sounded, Portuguese quickly dumped enemies from all vessels and, having chopped off anchors, beat off attack of a suitable enemy flotilla. However, almost all Portuguese seamen who were ashore died, except for several people who escaped thanks to the same Magellan. Fernan swam up to the coast on the only boat which was nearly available at the disposal of Portuguese and took away those who could break through to the coast. Among them there was also Serran.

So the usual five-year term of stay of Magellan in India came to the end, and it, having removed shoulder straps, the next squadron went home. However adventures on it did not end. When the flotilla passed by the Laccadive Islands located near the Maldivian archipelago, two ships on one of which there was also Magellan, were wrecked. Teams managed to escape on a small island. Here escaped it was necessary to be divided. The part went for the help, and the rest was prepared destiny to wait for this help. It happened so that on the island from officers there was only one Magellan, all others departured. The simple sailors who were left without the administration lifted revolt, they were afraid that they were just left and nobody will rescue. Magellan managed to calm team that speaks about his undoubted authority.

There passed ten days, they were rescued, but they had to return to India where Magellan as dismissed from military service, it was forced to be engaged in commerce. Having earned money solid for those times there, he in 1510 lent 200 kruzada to one of dealers. Then it was very big money, but they to it were not returned, he was forced to appeal to court and only in 6 years received all sum back.

At this time there was a need for replenishment of a military squadron by the additional vessels necessary for capture of Goa. Witz - the king of India brings together by Albuquerque council from 16 most authoritative Portuguese who are at that moment in India. Their number includes also Magellan.

Be continued.