What territories of the USSR were freed in January - February, 1943?For January and February months 1943 the German army was rejected on those positions with which began approach with summer of 1942 and it is expelled from the North Caucasus, Rostov-on-Don, the Voronezh region, Kharkiv. In honor of 25 - y anniversaries of Red Army the Supreme Commander I. V. Stalin issued the order. In one month Germans threw from the West 27 divisions, including five tank.
About the main events at the front which were taking place in January - February, 1943 A. M. Vasilevsky wrote the following: “That it was easier for reader to be guided in the events developed then on the Top and Central Don, several words about the general situation on sovetsko - the German front at that time. Release of the native earth went through a series of the offensive operations blocking one another on time.
In the south treat them: Rostov operation from January 1 to February 18 (liberation of Rostov-on-Don); Nalchinsko - Stavropol from January 3 to February 4 (liberation of Stavropol); liquidation of Stalingrad group of fascists from January 10 to February 2; Krasnodarsko - Novorossiysk operation since January 11 (it ended in May with clarification from the enemy almost everything Prikubanya).
In the center: Ostrogozhsko - Rossoshansky operation from January 13 to January 27 (advance to the West around the Don inflows of Potudan, the Silent Pine and Black Kalitva); Voronezhsko - Kastornenskaya from January 24 to February 2 (liberation of the Voronezh region); Kharkiv from February 2 to March 3 (exile of the enemy from the district of Kharkiv).
In the north: break of the Siege of Leningrad from January 12 to January 18; elimination of the Demyansky base of fascists from February 15 to February 28“.
All operations performed at the appointed time were carried out with the maximum success for the Soviet troops. Apparently, our troops to spring of 1943 already expelled Germans from the Voronezh region and freed Kharkiv.
In the Voronezh region on the river Bityug there is a city of Beavers earlier well-known for horse-breeding centers. In this city in January, 1943 the front staff settled down. The river Bityug gave the name to breed of heavy dray horses who before war made considerable part of draft force in our artillery. The country was proud of the powerful heavy trucks. The people differing in unusual force were called for fun: “Áèòþã“.
From the above-stated operations especially it is necessary to mark out Ostrogozhsko - Rossoshansky offensive operation as a result of which the Soviet troops surrounded and liquidated 13 divisions of the opponent, took prisoner of 86 thousand enemy soldiers and officers, crushed 15 divisions, inflicted defeat over 6 divisions, promoted on 140 kilometers. And it not an exception to the rules. In each of the specified operations our troops moved ahead, generally on the West, smashing the enemy and putting it considerable losses.
On February 8 the city of Kursk, on February 9 - Belgorod, on February 16 - Kharkiv was freed. Approach was carried out by forces of Bryansk and Voronezh fronts. After liquidation of the group of the German troops surrounded near Stalingrad the Central front (the former Donskoy) joined them. In two winter months 1942 - 1943 the crushed German army was rejected on those positions with which began approach with summer of 1942. This big victory of our troops gave additional forces to both fighters, and home front workers.
“on February 21 the Central Committee of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) published slogans to 25 - y to anniversary of Red Army, and on February 23, in day of the holiday which with such love and with such hope turned to the Soviet soldiers, all country noted, was published the order of the Supreme Commander which was summing up some results of heroic fight of the Soviet people against the enemy hordes which fell upon the USSR.
In the order, in particular, it was told: “… There passed 20 months as Red Army conducts heroic fight unprecedented in the history against invasion German - fascist hordes. In view of lack of the second front in Europe the Red Army bears one all weight of war. Nevertheless, the Red Army not only resisted against an impact German - fascist hordes, but also became during war a thunder-storm for fascist armies.
In heavy fights in the summer and fall of 1942 the Red Army blocked a way to fascist wild beasts. Will forever hold our people in remembrance heroic defense of Sevastopol and Odessa, persistent fights near Moscow and in the Foothills of Caucasus, near Rzhev and near Leningrad, the greatest battle in the history of wars at walls of Stalingrad. In these great battles our valorous fighters, commanders and political workers covered with fadeless glory fighting banners of Red Army and laid the strong foundation for a victory over German-fascist armies.
Three months ago troops of Red Army began approach on approaches of Stalingrad. Since then the initiative of military operations is in our hands, and rates and striking power of offensive operations of Red Army do not weaken …
Hitlerite Germany which forced to work for itself war industry of Europe had superiority against the Soviet Union in equipment and first of all in tanks and planes until recently. In it there was its advantage. But in twenty months of war situation changed.
Thanks to dedicated work of workers, workers, engineers and technicians of war industry of the USSR, during war production of tanks, planes, tools increased. For the same time the enemy incurred on sovetsko - the German front huge losses in military equipment, in particular in tanks, planes and tools …
Hitlerite Germany entered war against the Soviet Union, having almost two years` experience of conducting large military operations in Europe with application of the latest means of war, the Red Army during the first period of war, naturally, had no also could not have such military experience. In it advantage German - fascist army consisted. In twenty months situation, however, changed also in this area. During war the Red Army became personnel army. She learned to hammer the enemy for certain, taking into account its weak and strengths as it is demanded by modern military science … from this, however, does not follow
that is finished Hitlerite army and the Red Army needs only to pursue it to the western borders of our country. To think so - means to indulge in stupid and harmful self-flattery. To think so - means to overestimate the forces, to underestimate strengths of the opponent and to fall into adventurism.
The enemy got beaten, but he is not won yet. German - the fascist army endures crisis in view of the blows received from Red Army, but it does not mean yet that it cannot recover. Fight against the German aggressors is not over yet, - it is only developed and runs high. It would be silly to believe that Germans the kilometer of our earth is left without fight at least.
Severe fight against artful, cruel and still strong enemy is necessary to red Army. This fight will demand time, the victims, tension of our forces and mobilization of all our opportunities … The German aggressors furiously resist, turn into counterattacks, try to linger on defensive boundaries and can be let on new adventures. That is why in our ranks there should not be a place to complacency, carelessness, conceit.
All Soviet people rejoice to victories of Red Army. But fighters, commanders and political workers of Red Army have to remember precepts of our teacher Lenin firmly: “The first business - not to be fond of a victory and not to be proud, the second business - to secure a victory, the third - to finish the opponent“.
I. V. Stalin warned army that the enemy is still strong. And in the message to F. Roosevelt and At. To Churchill reproached them with inaction and demanded opening 2 - go the front in 1 - y to a half of 1943, specifying that only in one month since the end of December, 1942 until the end of January, 1943 Germans threw on sovetsko - the German front from France, Holland and Germany 27 divisions, including five tank.
As we know, Germans began war with the USSR, having together with allies army more than twice the army of the Soviet Union exceeding on number. The army of Germany with armies of her allies exceeded the Soviet army at least on 6 million people. Thanks to it Germany had an opportunity to constantly throw on East front against Red Army the fresh, trained, completed divisions.
To be made even on number to the German army we should have called up during war for military service recruits on 6 million people more, than Germany with her allies. Of course, the Soviet management could not call up the necessary number of people as it would lead to a stop of all war industry for military service. It is necessary to consider that at that time we had in the territory neostopped by the opponent the number of the population three times less unified Germany of Europe.
Thus, our opportunities for bringing number of the military personnel of Red Army to the number of the military personnel of armies of Germany and its allies were very limited and therefore till summer of 1943 we were at war the number of troops which was much less than the number of the troops of Germany which are in the territory of the USSR with allies.
We achieved equality of number of troops not only by creation of new divisions, but also by destruction of divisions of the opponent. To summer of 1943 Germany and its allies lost soldiers and officers it is more, than Red Army and for this reason there came equality of number of troops of the armies, Soviet and German with allies.
On the basis of the aforesaid in itself a conclusion that statements about excess during war of our losses over losses of the opponent are not true arises.