Travel to Chile. How the albatross looks?Wandering albatross - a unique sea bird, the owner of many “bird`s“ records. It and wingspan to 3,7 m, and the fact that it soars in air with a speed up to 80 km/h, without waving wings, at the same time can soar also against wind. And the fact that he hatches out baby birds two months, and brings up 8 - 9 more months, and then departs, leaving them in a nest from where that jump off in the sea and come back there in 6 - 7 years.
The cruise liner, appear, stiffened in the worrying sea, and only the foamy trace behind a stern demonstrated that the vessel follows along the set route. This day there was no parking in port and there was no place to hurry. Having rounded a curved ladle of South America and having got out of interlacings of the Chilean fjords, the vessel went to Valparaiso, finishing almost two-week cruise.
The sky was cloudy, clouds, accumulating at each other, slid in different directions, without giving the chance to break through down to any ray of the sun. The sea did not please, vyglyadev is unfriendly and severe. There was a breakfast, brisk people fussed around, the multilingual speech sounded in the long extended cafe located on the most main deck of the huge liner.
Suddenly below directly over water I noticed some strange cross of irregular shape. The short longitudinal party was crossed by long disproportionately big cross-piece. The cross hung not movably, appear, that it is attached to a vessel board by an invisible thread.
“It is advisable to look what is it“, - I told the spouse. She nodded in reply, continuing to eat. I began to have breakfast too and forgot about this unclear cross.
Already in the late afternoon when we stood in the lift hall, expecting when one of elevators deigns to honor us with the attention, I noticed this strange figure again. The cross hung precisely in the same place, as in the morning, and was also not mobile. This time we were closer to it and could consider it properly.
- So same bird! - we were surprised.
Really, it was the albatross. Having stretched huge wings, he soared in air, without making any apparent motions, but did not lag behind the ship rushing by the worrying sea. For the first time we saw this eternal wanderer who can accompany here so for watch of the court waiting for something tasty which is thrown out overboard.
The wandering albatross is included into group of trubkonosy. Such name arose from - for characteristic the sign peculiar to all his members: the nostrils providing to these birds fine sense of smell and being on each side a beak are closed outside by the horny tubules. It is necessary that did not fill in a nasopharynx of birds with water when they slide directly over foamy crests of waves.
Ornithologists were engaged in studying of trubkonos recently, albatrosses and petrels are basic of which, and found out that they are in many respects unique also them just right to include in the Guinness Book of Records, especially wandering albatross.
We will begin with the fact that it is the largest of the flying birds on the earth. Wingspan reaches 3,7 m that is an absolute record, at the same time length of his body does not exceed 120 cm. Here also such strange cross turns out if to look at an albatross from above. At the same time weight at an adult albatross of only 11 kg. Wings at it are created not for a litany in habitual sense of this word, and for soaring. Very narrow, the arc-shaped form, they are supplied with the thickened flowed round forward edge that gives the chance, using the air streams which are reflected from slopes of waves infinitely long to soar in air. For this reason albatrosses never rise higher than 15 m over water, and generally slide directly over a sea surface.
It can seem strange, but albatrosses badly fly. In windless weather the bird should wave very often wings what those are badly adapted for therefore during a calm they sit on water, without rising in air, and are half-asleep. And here is how wind only rises, albatrosses come to life at once and begin to soar. They do this best of all in the world.
Movement speed by air at them reaches 80 km/h, at average 50. The bird can be airborne for days, overcoming in 24 hours prior to 1000 km. The albatross marked in a special way managed to fly about the globe in 46 days. And another, banded in the Indian Ocean, was caught at coast of South America again, having overcome at the same time more than 10 000 km.
For the seaman in the last centuries to see an albatross was a predvozvestnik of trouble, a storm, storm. Not for nothing trubkonos called petrels. Here also they live in the Southern hemisphere where strong winds blow constantly. At the same time the albatross is capable to do what is not subject to other birds - to soar against wind.
Albatrosses carry out considerable part of the life alone, but when the marriage period begins, the instinct drives them home where they form huge colonies. Their time gathers so many that the coast behind them is not visible. Albatrosses live in the southern part of the ocean, arranging the nests on the remote islands throughout the Antarctic region. Nests of a bird build on the places which are well blown by wind as they cannot fly up from the earth and catch a flaw that, having jumped off from edge to begin flight.
After return to places of gnezdoviya of a bird begin to look for the half. They are monogamous: having connected once, do not leave to death of one of partners. Childlessness is other reason of disintegration of a married couple. If in several years baby birds do not appear, couple breaks up and birds begin new search of promiseds.
Usually albatrosses begin search of couple in 6 - 7 - summer age. It can long proceed, till 10 years and more. There live albatrosses till 50 years, but posterities remove a little. It is connected with one unique feature of these birds. The period of an incubation of baby birds, and then their bringing up lasts nearly a year. The incubation is unprecedentedly long - about more than 2 months, and parents do it, replacing each other in 2 - 3 weeks. Then 8 - 9 more months a baby bird nest, and parents bring it food. And at last, when parents leave it, the baby bird jumps in the sea and develops wings. After that it rises in air and only in several years comes back to the coast, there, where was born, and begins to build a nest not further than in 22 meters from parental.
A beak at an albatross powerful, with the bent hook, the mouth is supplied with horn ledges that the bird could hold the hooked fish. Legs at them small, between three forward fingers the swimming membrane is tense.
Europeans learned about these birds when they began to swim in the southern hemisphere, in the 15th century. Portuguese called them “aotkatrosa“ - big pelicans, and British renamed them in “albatrosses“. However more often called “blockheads“, from - for trustfulness of these huge birds. If to throw overboard the piece of fat got on a hook the albatross snatches on a bait and swallows it, falling thereby into hands of the person.