Rus Articles Journal

Who such there were telephone young ladies?

on July 13, 1882 there began work the Russia`s first telephone exchanges. Now ordinary phone is “the leaving nature“. And in 1880 - x years it was the front line scientifically - technical progress. Telephonists, or as they were called differently, “telephone young ladies“ were a driving force of this progress.

Among many definitions of homo sapiens there is one which calls the person the speaking monkey. Perhaps, for someone and it is offensive, but in fact it is right. The second alarm system which arose as result of mastering the speech and process of the speech the managing director is what distinguishes the person from an animal. And though the writer Maxim Gorky claimed that a knowledge source - the book, modern anthropologists incline to other opinion. A knowledge source - talk, gossips.

Yes, people like to chat! So the invention of phone in 1876 was epoch-making. And very favorable. At the beginning of 1880 - x years in many cities of the world phone lines and phones appeared. By the standards of slow 19 - go centuries phone extended almost instantly.

In Moscow and in St. Petersburg telephone exchanges were open for on July 13, 1882 (on July 1 on old style). A bit later telephone networks appeared in Odessa, Warsaw and in Riga. Arranged them and the American company Bella operated. That which invented phone. At the time of opening in Moscow there were 26 subscribers, and in St. Petersburg - 128. The competitor, the Swedish company “Eriksson“, organized installation of telephones in Kiev, Kharkiv, Kazan and Tiflis.

Installation of phone was business quite expensive because except laying of a telephone wire in the house of the client installed additional devices with a gross weight of 8 kg. Paid 250 rubles a year for operation of phone. Scale for comparison is specified in several lines below, but anyway, the companies and people very well-founded got telephone sets first of all.

How there was a telephone connection? The defiant subscriber twisted the handle on the telephone set. At the same time built in the dynamo device - the car developed an electric impulse, it, coming to station, opened the valve which covered the plug of a cable of the defiant subscriber. At the same time the subscriber was connected to the operator and called number with which he asked connections. All cash numbers were on the panel before eyes of the operator or on one of the next panels. The operator made connection itself or reported a cable to the neighbor that connection was organized by him.

As 19 - y the century was not tolerant and sexist, it was supposed that the operator will be a man. But it appeared - do not pull. Work demanded concentration and scrupulousness. Men distracted and made many mistakes. But also, constantly quarreled and swore among themselves and at clients. As necessary it was necessary to make operators of women. So there were “telephone young ladies“.

Work required all then taught girls from decent petty-bourgeois families to. Telephone young ladies were formed and could speak foreign languages. They were quickly trained in the hard work. But also, purely female properties affected. Girls were polite and patient.

In a high tech of that time paid much for work - the whole 30 rubles a month. It was comparable with a salary of the cool official and much more exceeded earnings of the qualified Moscow or Petersburg worker in 12 rubles a month. Certain requirements also were imposed to candidates. Age - from 18 to 25 years. Growth - not less than 165 cm that could reach any nest on the connecting panel located before it. She is not married that did not think of household chores - such thoughts led to mistakes at connection. Growth in 165 centimeters then was considered high, so telephonists were stately and slender that coincided with the ideal of female beauty which was becoming fashionable at the end of 19 - go centuries. Here such “tsvetnichok“ was got in a subsoil of the telephone companies.

The telephone young lady was seductively available - only call. The telephone young lady was mysterious - only a voice in a tube. The telephone young lady on a position was polite and affable. It is not sophisticated that in Russia at the end of 19 - go centuries this specialty passed for not less sexual, than profession of the stewardess in the Soviet Union 1960 - x years. Naturally, in the people legends of how the girl - the telephonist fascinated by the one voice the capitalist - the profiteer walked or - is higher than that - the illustrious aristocrat, than and earned the maiden happiness. About stewardesses too a lot of things was told. One more proof that in all centuries people like to gossip. Well, and phone to them in hands!

And hands to phones stretched. Telephone sets became less by the size, it is better quality and are cheaper. Installation of phone became available to much. The telephone network extended in a geometrical progression. However, it is similar to prompt development of mobile telephone networks today? Means, the desire inherent in the person to chat with similar for last 150 years did not decrease at all.

Telephone numbers became more and more. But the telephone young ladies who were tirelessly providing communication knew many numbers by heart. Therefore the sacramental phrase from the Soviet movies about revolution: “The young lady, me Smolny“ - quite could take place. The telephone young lady on the switchboard, of course, knew number of the former institution for young ladies and right there connected. And as in Smolny not one telephone, it appears, as in response to an appeal of some commissioner was installed: “The young lady, me Smolny, Lenina“, the correct connection was made too. Which of telephone young ladies did not know Nadenka Krupskaya`s husband? So telephonists carried out also a role of help.

This fact led, eventually, to the invention of the automatic telephone exchange (ATE) which led to emergence as spoke, “phone without ladies and damnations“. In English this definition sounds kalamburno: “no dames’n`damns telephone“. On a legend the inventor of automatic telephone exchange Elmon Brown Stroudzher (Almon Brown Strowger; 1839 - 1902 ) was the owner of funeral bureau. Orders arrived generally by phone. But the competitor`s wife worked at the city switchboard as the telephonist. So it transferred all calls of subscribers which caused funeral bureau to number of the husband.

Actually, this telephone young lady worked the same as modern the Internet - search engines which in several, very first, lines give the paid contextual advertizing. It is clear, that the automatic switchboard in such cases would be impartial. Here Stroudzher invented such switchboard and patented in 1889, and in 1892 the first automatic telephone exchange earned. Automatic telephone exchanges were established not only for installation of telephones to the big and small cities. Each large enterprise or big hotel could install own automatic switchboard and not employ for this purpose army of telephonists.

Thereof the number of telephonists sharply decreased. “Telephone young ladies“ began to go to help services and - what to hide? - in “wiretap“ too. In the American series about creation of the Manhattan atomic bomb telephone connections in the scientific town carry out women (often wives of scientists). The task to interrupt telephone conversations is assigned to them if words from “black list“ are pronounced.

The USSR`s first automatic telephone exchange appeared in 1924 in the Kremlin. Replacement process of “telephone young ladies“ on automatic telephone switchboards also began with it. Then there was a word “revolving object“ for the name of phones of the Kremlin communication. The name arose from - for what the Kremlin phones had a disk nomeronabiratel. Each subscriber of the Kremlin communication received except “revolving object“ the special phonebook with phone numbers of all Bolshevist top living then in the Kremlin. Numbering did not correspond to position of the companion in party hierarchy at all. Stalin had number 034, and at Dzerzhinsky - it is only not necessary to laugh - 007. Such here agent with the right for murder.

The disk nomeronabiratel thought up the same Stroudzher in 1896. This nomeronabiratel was nearly 50 years a body of the Soviet phones. Push-button telephones in the Soviet Union appeared at the end of 1980 - x. Made them at the VEF Riga plant which soon sailed away from the Union together with the phones, with Riga and with Latvia.

Those who with affection remember the consumer goods made in the Soviet Union probably will remember that on old telephone disks letters were placed. It is memory that from 1930 to 1968 the Moscow numbers represented a combination of letters and figures. For example, the telephone number which played a leading role A. Gaidar`s stories “Destiny of the drummer“ was 0 - 48 - 64. Letters remained from old, still pre-revolutionary Moscow system of numbers which were grouped in districts of the city. Then, calling somebody by phone, the subscriber, having twisted the handle and having heard the answer of the telephonist, called the caused number approximately so: “Hallo, young lady! Give me Yakimanka three - twelve“. And the telephone young lady at first looked for the panel to which all telephone sets near Yakimanka then stuck the plug of a telephone cord in a nest 12 third rows on this panel were connected.

The first letter in old Moscow numbers allowed to define location of the called subscriber approximately. So, in the above-stated number it was possible to determine by a letter G that his hostess, Nina Polovtseva, lived somewhere near the Kiev station.