Polotsk. Whom we will remember, passing the city?Up to One Polotsk simpler many times to reach and return, than to write once. And it is connected with the oldest history of the city and edge too. In total - - one of the most ancient cities of east Slavs.
To write about history of Polotsk as difficult as about stories of Vitebsk - there will be enough neither forces, nor the place. It is only possible to manage to read a short historical sketch and to look at the city through a prism of destinies of the people living here.
Polotsk was erected. Rogvolod
It is friendly and mild the rules
I, having attached to itself the people,
forced to fall in love with the Power of the prince ...
As far as Polotsk was connected with Vikings and whom was Rogvolod - let historians argue. The fact that Rogvoloda killed Vladimir Svyatoy, and also violently took the princely daughter Rogneda in the wife - it seems, a historic fact.
The composer A. Serov has, by the way, an opera “Rogneda“. Other - it is difficult to mention the ballet, novels, poems, the picturesque cloths devoted to Rogneda from - for quantities written.
From Rogneda Rogvolodovna`s children Yaroslav the Wise (occasionally too it is challenged) and Izyaslav - the ancestor of the Polotsk branch of Ryurik dynasty are most known. At Vseslav Bryachislavich (Magician) the Polotsk principality was large and powerful. What did not cancel infinite disputes and military contentions between relatives.
And we will visit the places connected from praprapravnuchky Rogneda and Vladimir now - Efrosinyey Polotskoy.
Efrosinye Polotsk (in the world Predislava Svyatoslavovna) - the educator of an era of the Old Russian state, the foundress of the well-known monastery in Polotsk, the first sacred on the Belarusian lands, the patroness of the country (was born about 1105 in Polotsk, died in 1167 in Jerusalem).
Of Predislava`s life - Efrosinyi is known not so much. She refused honourable marriage, went to the monastery (together with it her sisters - Gordislava and Zvenislav went to the monastery at different times). In a cell began to rewrite books, and it was then the hardest work which was performed by men. It also translated books. Based Efrosinya and the first libraries, one of the earliest in this part of Europe, opened icon-painting and jeweler workshops.
The Belarusian national shrine - the Cross Efrosinyi Polotskoy is connected with a name of Efrosinyi. It was created in 1161, lost during the Great Patriotic War (the cross was taken out to evacuation, and since then nothing is known of it).
Shortly before it the monument of drevnepolotsky architecture - Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy temple was erected. Here at this monastery - and until now Spaso - the Evfrosinyevsky monastery - is a high time to stop by.
Spaso - the Evfrosinyevsky monastery - the operating convent in Polotsk. The monastery founded in 1125 endured the history, general with the city. But and there is ancient Spaso - Transfiguration Cathedral, churches of later construction settled down nearby. The architect Ioann who is almost not known built the first stone church, works were carried out very quickly - in 30 weeks. In the temple unique frescos of the 12th century remained.
The name of one more resident of Polotsk cannot but be to acquaintances and Muscovites. It is Simeon Polotsky .
The theologian, the educator, the writer, the poet, the mentor and the teacher of imperial children Samuil Petrovsky - Sitnyanovich was born in Polotsk which in the 17th century already entered Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Studied in Kiev, arrived to Moscow. At court of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich it was engaged in various affairs including predictions:
“Celibate priest Simeon Polotskoy and celibate priest Dimitrii... were engaged at court of Alexy Mikhaylovich in astrological supervision and predictions. The first of them prorek in 9 months prior to Petr`s birth his nice acts, and in writing claimed that “on the presvetly star which was near Mars he clearly saw and as if in the book read that zachenshiysya in a womb of the queen Natalia Kirillovna the son of his (tsar) will be called Petr that succeeds to the throne it, and will be such hero that in glory none of contemporaries can be compared to it “and away“ . (A.S. Pushkin “Peter I`s History“.)
Simeon trained not only imperial children, but also scribes of the Order of secret affairs - future diplomats studied necessary then Latin in affairs. Simeon composed verses in Church Slavonic and Polish languages, and also comedies for theater. Simeon Polotsky`s creativity is referred to the Russian literary baroque. And in Polotsk there is to it a monument.
We “visited“ Polotsk 10, 12 and 17 centuries. It would be possible to remember still the prince Andrey Olgerdovich (to him too in the city the monument is established). It is possible to remember the Polotsk princess Maria Vasilkovna whom that is not attributed only recently. It is possible to remember Francis Skorinu - the East Slavic first printer and the public figure (there is also in the city a monument, and someone can remember also the movie “I, Francis Scorina“ with O. Yankovsky in a leading role).
It is possible to remember two known battles at Polotsk during Napoleonic invasion. And it is possible to remember a terrible concentration camp of Dulag 125 in which in the years of the last war 40000 people died...
In Polotsk is the big historian - the cultural memorial estate which, obviously, will develop and extend. But again known problem: it is necessary to come early and not for one day. And ahead - border.