Vitebsk. What to look with tired eyes at?On Smolenskaya Road - the woods, the woods, the woods... And this is dear is nowadays Federal highway M - 1 and part of European Route E 30, it appears, very old. Several old and important cities - Mozhaisk, Vyazma, Smolensk - but their sense not to look, everywhere it is necessary to take detours and to pass excess kilometers. Even to Borodino - the place of great battle of Patriotic war of 1812 - should be done a hook in 15 kilometers that is already quite essential when you go abroad.
And to go to us - it is far. However, as will carry and as it will turn out. For now - Belarus.
On Smolenskaya Road - a blizzard in a face, in a face.
All turn us affairs out of the house, put, put.
Perhaps be more reliable than your hands a ring -
shorter, likely, the road to me would lay down .
(B. Okudzhava) of
Is expensive quite good, especially in comparison with the federal highway to St. Petersburg. It conducts to Minsk and further to Western Europe. But there is an option to curtail a little earlier, and then get to the cities to which there was always a wish, but somehow it was impossible earlier. Here also came true: both Vitebsk, and Polotsk.
Belarus makes remarkable impression: purely, comfortably, quiet smiling people. Roads are good, on each side - the cultivated fields which - where and “corpulent herds“ are grazed. Ancient Vitebsk appears unexpectedly.
“About Paris! You are my second Vitebsk!“ (famous phrase of Marc Chagall).
It was always interesting to me why so many names are connected with this city. Probably, it is connected with all its history. But to write about history of Vitebsk is itself not to be sorry. About stories of the city volumes of works are written, they still are required to be mastered. Hastily before a trip of an eye snatched out the basic, for themselves the most important.
On the Castle mountain it (is razed) there lived once a certain baltsky tribe of Dnieper - Dwin culture. Then there Slavs - Krivichi came (or perhaps and originally they lived alternately). The glory of the basis of Vitebsk is attributed to the princess Olga:
“against At summer 974 Olga, having won against yatvyag and Pechenegs, it was transported through the Dvina River and with army spent the night. It liked the mountain, and it based the wooden lock, having called it, from the river Vitby, Vitebsk; constructed in the Top lock stone church of Saint Mikhail, and in Nizhny Novgorod - the Annunciation and, having stayed two years, went to Kiev “.
However Olga died before the known date of the basis of Vitebsk (974). It is impossible to tell now whether dates are mixed or something is confused in the legend. The fact is that the city - one of the oldest and the most important in the history of Ancient Russia.
Ivan the Terrible not incidentally called in due time coast of the Western Dvina silver, and a bottom gold. Fast blossoming of the principality is explained also by a city arrangement a trade way from the Varangian in Greeks. Vitebsk quickly becomes the center of trade and crafts. And soon the last prince Vitebsk gives the daughter Maria in marriage to the Grand duke Lithuanian Olgerd Gediminovich. And the city devolves in VKL.
However subsequently, maybe, and no policy existed, maybe, girls Vitebsk just very beautiful? Alexander Nevsky too from those edges took the wife to himself.
Vitebsk had the Magdebourg right therefore citizens quickly constructed a town hall. The right was selected, however, for a while after murder of the uniatsky archbishop I. Kuntsevich.
That favorable location which in old times ennobled Vitebsk was also misfortune of the city. Vitebsk saw not one war and faced cruelty from all directions. Terrible tests dropped out to this earth and in the last war. Belarus assumed one of the most crushing blows during World War II. And it desperately resisted. Troops of the Belarusian and Baltic front left to meet 118 people - was registered in Vitebsk after the German occupation, in day of release of the city so much.
The museums all are already closed, to get precisely it will not turn out anywhere therefore it is decided to be limited to architectural forms.
“As the body when I shook me... entered a church, - though it was all - navsy a church in Vitebsk! It seemed to me then that is not present on the earth of more marvelous sounds, than these terrible, gnashing peals, a rumble and thunders among which and counter to which angelic voices cry out and exult in gaping heaven“ ... (Bunin. Arsenyev`s life.)
Vitebsk is well-known for the temples, the part of them is built in style of vilensky baroque. This style is presented not only in Vilnius, but also in the territory of modern Belarus and Ukraine. It is quite simple to distinguish it from, say, Moscow baroque - or it seems so. But it is necessary to see these two symmetric turrets aspiring up which characterize this style.
But also irrespectively style temples in Vitebsk beautiful. However, many of them were not passed by a destruction bowl. Assumption Cathedral was blown up in 1936. His sappers under supervision of future general and the dissident P. Grigorenko blew up (“ of Subjects and are noted my two Vitebsk years: I destroyed three historical monuments of architecture, three temples - three shrines of our workers “). Now this temple is completely recreated.
Voskresensky (Rynkovaya) the church - too vilensky baroque and too is destroyed in 1936. It is also completely restored.
It is difficult to believe, but also a rare monument - Annunciation Church - was blown up already in 60 - x, at Khrushchev. And it is the 12th century, a monument of drevnepolotsky architecture at all, the age-mate of “Tale of Igor`s Campaign“. Who created church - it is unknown, but it is very exceptional case when the building was under construction alternation of a stone and brick.
The temple and the famous Moscow architect and the restorer Pyotr Baranovsky tried to rescue, beat off telegrams in authorities, came to Vitebsk. He managed to rescue many Moscow monuments, but here was not in time. The church was demolished, and in few weeks ruins urgently took under the state protection as the value of world value. Then even removed a plot in a satirical newsreel “Match“ (“Without thinking twice“).
To break, blow up, and then right there to take ruins under protection - in it there is something symbolical. Now the unique monument of Old Russian architecture is restored.
It is, of course, not all Vitebsk churches but only at what it was succeeded to look one eye, and already quite tired. Also Arth - the center with a memorial House museum of Marc Chagall was not succeeded to look. Too it is a pity because there is a wish to understand up to the end why Vitebsk became the center of art vanguard. Means, we will set aside it on the following time, we will find time. Nevertheless it is necessary to come to Vitebsk since morning and without hurrying.
Even in “Bulbyanuyu“ it is not possible to drop in, though on the road. It was not succeeded to taste thematic Belarusian cuisine.
But there was what it was not a pity for. Every year in July there takes place the international festival “Slavic Market in Vitebsk“. But advertized Leps. Fortunately, I so do not love the Russian platform that I was not upset a temporary miss at all. Let`s hope, however, that will be still to whom to act during the holiday.
Write that in Vitebsk there are still festivals of classical music of Sollertinsky (he is from these places too and to it there is a monument) - there I would descend at an opportunity. In total - the amazing city who here was only not born and did not live: artists, musicians and musicologists, actors. And philosopher Lossky.
The city of Vitebsk is very good, but time draws in, to border it is necessary to be in time also to Polotsk.