How to understand psychology? Experiments, concepts, peopleIn translation from Greek psychology - “science about soul“. With its help we study and we comprehend ourselves in the ways about which earlier and did not suspect. We suggest you to go to travel to own soul. You sit down more conveniently and be adjusted on inspiration. Time to shed light on riddles of human mentality came.
How there is a love and what treat hypnosis why we gossip and what is a cognitive dissonance from where the talent undertakes and what it is necessary to put the plane?
In the book “Psychology“ there is no boring statistics and bulky theories. Only live science, fascinating experiences and surprising people. Let`s look?
Old times Freud and subconscious
Siegmund Freud is the founder of psychoanalysis - perhaps, the most famous representative of psychology. In his opinion, our feelings, beliefs, impulses and emotions which are their cornerstone are hidden in unconscious and are inaccessible to consciousness.
Better to understand this theory, imagine an iceberg. An iceberg top, or consciousness, - only small part of the personality; and as it is the only part of ours “I“ with which we are well familiar, in fact, we know very little what does us such what we are.
Therefore it is so important to know fundamentals of psychology - better to understand itself and the desires. Everything begins
the Psychologist Harry Harlou wanted to refute the theory of attachment, popular in the beginning of the 20th century, according to which the love arises in the baby to mother because she nurses it. So there was an experiment with wire and plush “mother“.
Harlou made two substitute “mothers“ for cubs of macaques - a Rhesus factor. He took away these kids from the real monkeys through a couple of hours after the birth and at once placed to artificial. One were made of soft plush, but could not feed a cub, and to the second, winded from a provolok, small bottles with milk were attached.
Kids spent exactly so much time how many it was required for saturation with wire “mother“. And all rest of the time sat, having nestled on nice on the touch, warm and plush “mother“. Such behavior unambiguously proved: physiological requirements - not the most important.
And if I am absent?.
the depersonalization Syndrome - derealization arises from - for the endured psychological trauma. The person feels feeling of estrangement, a razjedinennost with the “I“ or own body. The body seems to it unreal.
Patients complain of as if their body is dissolved in air or changes. The patient`s person as though watches the life from outside. Sometimes it seems to it that it soars under a ceiling and looks from above at himself. Or he feels machine or the robot.
The effect of depersonalization occurs also at healthy people, for example at a sleep deprivation or experience of emotionally drama events, when using some anesthetics.
As is arranged memory
remains a riddle To this day, information is how exactly organized. However scientists found out: memoirs unite in groups as a result of a clustering.
Long-term memory is a storage of memoirs. Just as in the animated film “Puzzle“. In case of need we take necessary and we use them at communication with people and the solution of problems.
Data are divided into categories thanks to what are much more simply remembered. Look at group of words. And then, without spying, try to write down words from the list.
Banana the Peach
your memory for certain will group them in three different categories: color, fruit and furniture.
of People strives for the ordered perception of the world and avoids discrepancy of values, ideas and preferences each other. If in consciousness there are clashing representations, people feel discomfort. Leon Festinger called it a cognitive dissonance.
Festinger studied behavior of members of religious sect. These people believed that the planet is doomed and will be destroyed by a powerful flood soon. Many waiting for accident sold the houses and quitted the job. But the great flood did not occur. Festinger attentively watched their reaction.
Some recognized that they were blinded, and left sect. And the most zealous adherents offered interpretation of events which confirmed initial idea: they claimed that Earth was rescued by their boundless belief.
a self-updating Flower
the Psychologist Karl Rozhders considered that each person is by nature internally beautiful. Destructive and “boring“ it becomes only if external restrictions or a low self-assessment appear.
Any person seeks for self-updating - full realization of the potential in work, creativity and life. It is the simplest to describe self-updating, having compared it to a flower. The flower is not free, it is limited by concrete habitat. Only under certain conditions it can grow and blossom, having fully realized natural potential.
Only having understood itself, we can self-actualize.
Art as a way of healing
Art helps people to find a common language and to cope with a stress, to open and investigate the personality. Psychologists use art for improvement of mental health of patients and even for treatment of serious mental disorders.
In an art - therapies creativity unites with psychotherapy. As the direction an art - therapy began to be allocated in 1940 - x years when psychiatrists were interested in the pictures painted by patients with mental disorders.
Today such methods as playing music, dance, writing, theater are applied (which is called creative an art - therapy) and performance (expressional an art - therapy).
On materials of the book of Paul Kleynman “Psychology. People, concepts, experiments“.